Skip Navigation...

 

Research Topics

 

Below is a list of research topics supported by the AFRL. Use the filters and keyword search below to find research topics of interest. You can apply for up to 3 topics on your application.


 

 

Scholars are encouraged to contact any mentors whose projects they find of interest. To contact the mentor, use the link included at the conclusion of each project description.

 

3D Modeling & Printing/Robotics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Beth Hanning, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School, Masters, Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Support to the IDL for summer internship

3D Printing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Beth Hanning, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Upper-level Undergraduate
The growth in technical skills for 3D printing is exponentially increasing in demand.  To meet this demand, curicula need to be developed to address a broad range of interests such as advanced materials processing, durability, accuracy and functionality.

3D Reconstruction of Un-resolved Space Objects
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jacob Wade Singleton, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will use a vision based approach to create an autonomously reconstructed 3D model of un-resolved space objects in orbit.  The 3D modeling algorithm will need to be resilient to large ranges in image resolution and intensity and other conditions unique to imagery in space. Resulting models will be able to support the prediction of un-resolved satellite component geometry, long range identification, and change detection.  The selected scholar will work on algorithm development and lab experiments to reconstruct 3D models of space objects.

Advanced Algorithms for Radio Frequency Navigation Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) information is crucial to almost every modern system.  Many systems currently use the Global Positioning System to provide the desired knowledge but there are cases, such as indoors, where GPS is unavailable.  In many of the cases where GPS is unavailable other forms of RF are available.  This topic seeks to investigate non-GPS navigation techniques and methods that leverage existing RF communications links and sophisticated estimation algorithms.

Students will develop PNT algorithms and simulation capabilities based on RF communications links. Tasks may include building detailed truth-model simulations for testing algorithm performance, improving methods of initializing the PNT algorithms, finding ways to resolve position ambiguities, applying advanced mathematical concepts to improve nonlinear performance, and comparing algorithm performance for different configurations of RF links. Students will test their algorithms using simulations or RF hardware in the lab, as appropriate.

Advanced Algorithms for Space Computing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Reed Alan Weber, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Advances in focal plane array (FPA) imaging technology are enabling important new missions in intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance. However, the high frame rates, large bit depths and large pixel formats common in next generation FPAs generate significant data volumes which pose several emerging problems. Of interest here is the interplay between the timely presentation of mission data and the complex nature of data handling in space. Data processing that may be performed easily on Earth struggles to keep pace with mission timelines when forced to operate within the constraints of size, weight, power, radiation tolerant hardware and limited bandwidth data downlinks imposed by space missions. In response to this problem, advanced algorithms both in efficient real-time image processing and in data compression comprise the most promising avenues of research. Ongoing research focuses on optimizing: current state-of-the-art algorithms, experimental engineering code, overall computational efficiency, information degradation, compression ratio, and hardware acceleration in complex computing architectures that include CPU, ASIC, DSP, FPGA etc.  This research merges important aspects of image processing, computer engineering, information theory and algorithm development.

Advanced Guidance and Control Law Development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Morgan Baldwin, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Due to the high cost of space systems, the ability to inspect, service, and repair/refuel these systems on-orbit is highly desireable.  Such missions require precise control of spacecraft motion to ensure mission objectives are met (e.g., imaging parameters, relative velocity constraints for docking, etc.), which is dependent on the closed-loop guidance algorithms used to ensure the vehicle completed the required mission within the defined constraints.  This topic seeks to develop improved guidance algorithms that provide improved robustness and performance in the face of systemic uncertainties (e.g., modeling errors), are adaptive to such errors to enable peformance in spite of errors, provide solutions for mission assurance and mission safety (e.g., fail-safe qualities), enable efficient use of spacecraft resources (fuel, power, etc.), and are reconfigurable based on shifting mission priorities.

Advanced Manufacturing Techniques for Spacecraft Fabrication
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Williams, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Recently, the field of additive manufacturing has advanced quickly where many systems are being used in personal, commercial, and operational settings.  The majority of research efforts are currently focusing on the development and advancement of systems and processes for single-class material systems such as systems for metals, thermoplastics, or conductive inks.  These systems are rapidly improving in their ability to produce consistent, high-quality parts using a single material class and have demonstrated mass saving through part optimization beyond the capability of traditional subtractive fabrication approaches as well as significant cost savings by reducing material waste, fabrication time, and engineering design time.  
Much of the research performed to date is on single material systems; however, there are a number of advantages that can be envisioned by moving to multi-material systems capable of combining structurally relevant materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), with dielectric and conductive materials to produce components or systems with integrated functions.  An example would be a structural panel or electronics enclosure with integrated antennas, wiring, sensors (i.e. strain gauges, temperature sensors, etc.), and/or heater elements. This topic will explore the capabilities and limitations of integrating multi-material additive manufacturing systems together to fabricate structures or other components with integrated functionality and will include design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of components.

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Spacecraft
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Williams, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Recently, the field of additive manufacturing has advanced quickly where many systems are being used in personal, commercial, and operational settings. The majority of research efforts are currently focusing on the development and advancement of systems and processes for single-class material systems such as systems for metals, thermoplastics, or conductive inks. These systems are rapidly improving in their ability to produce consistent, high-quality parts using a single material class and have demonstrated mass saving through part optimization beyond the capability of traditional subtractive fabrication approaches as well as significant cost savings by reducing material waste, fabrication time, and engineering design time. Much of the research performed to date is on single material systems; however, there are a number of advantages that can be envisioned by moving to multi-material systems capable of combining structurally relevant materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), with dielectric and conductive materials to produce components or systems with integrated functions. An example would be a structural panel or electronics enclosure with integrated antennas, wiring, sensors (i.e. strain gauges, temperature sensors, etc.), and/or heater elements. This topic will explore the capabilities and limitations of integrating multi-material additive manufacturing systems together to fabricate structures or other components with integrated functionality and will include design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of components.

Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Spacecraft
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Williams, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Recently, the field of additive manufacturing has advanced quickly where many systems are being used in personal, commercial, and operational settings. The majority of research efforts are currently focusing on the development and advancement of systems and processes for single-class material systems such as systems for metals, thermoplastics, or conductive inks. These systems are rapidly improving in their ability to produce consistent, high-quality parts using a single material class and have demonstrated mass saving through part optimization beyond the capability of traditional subtractive fabrication approaches as well as significant cost savings by reducing material waste, fabrication time, and engineering design time. Much of the research performed to date is on single material systems; however, there are a number of advantages that can be envisioned by moving to multi-material systems capable of combining structurally relevant materials, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), with dielectric and conductive materials to produce components or systems with integrated functions. An example would be a structural panel or electronics enclosure with integrated antennas, wiring, sensors (i.e. strain gauges, temperature sensors, etc.), and/or heater elements. This topic will explore the capabilities and limitations of integrating multi-material additive manufacturing systems together to fabricate structures or other components with integrated functionality and will include design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of components.

Advanced Photovoltaics for Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Geoffrey Keith Bradshaw, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
On-orbit performance of power generation systems is critical to the mission success.  Coupled with the demands for increased power generation, it is important to develop and investigate advanced technologies capable of meeting these mission requirements.  Advances in single crystal multi-junction, thin-film, and nano-technology based photovoltaics are important to achieving improved on-orbit performance.  The current state of the art photovoltaic cells used for space applications are based on the III-V material systems (eg. GaAs, GaInP).  However, innovative and novel material systems capable of more effectively utilizing the solar spectrum could provide tremendous advantages for space missions.  For example, recent work examining nano-structures have shown interesting advancements.  Some areas of interest for this topic include space environmental effects, electro-optical properties, and performance parameters for candidate material systems.  Specific projects can be tailored to students’ interests and skills, but will require a basic understanding of electrical, optical, and materials properties.  Students selected for this research opportunity will work with their mentor to develop a productive work plan which will be synergistic with their graduate work and the Air Force Research Laboratory’s mission.

Advanced Photovoltaics for Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Geoffrey Keith Bradshaw, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
On-orbit performance of power generation systems is critical to the mission success.  Coupled with the demands for increased power generation, it is important to develop and investigate advanced technologies capable of meeting these mission requirements.  Advances in single crystal multi-junction, thin-film, and nano-technology based photovoltaics are important to achieving improved on-orbit performance.  The current state of the art photovoltaic cells used for space applications are based on the III-V material systems (eg. GaAs, GaInP).  However, innovative and novel material systems capable of more effectively utilizing the solar spectrum could provide tremendous advantages for space missions.  For example, recent work examining nano-structures have shown interesting advancements.  Some areas of interest for this topic include space environmental effects, electro-optical properties, and performance parameters for candidate material systems.  Specific projects can be tailored to students’ interests and skills, but will require a basic understanding of electrical, optical, and materials properties.  Students selected for this research opportunity will work with their mentor to develop a productive work plan which will be synergistic with their field of study and the Air Force Research Laboratory’s mission.

Advanced Photovoltaics for Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Geoffrey Keith Bradshaw, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
On-orbit performance of power generation systems is critical to the mission success.  Coupled with the demands for increased power generation, it is important to develop and investigate advanced technologies capable of meeting these mission requirements.  Advances in single crystal multi-junction, thin-film, and nano-technology based photovoltaics are important to achieving improved on-orbit performance.  The current state of the art photovoltaic cells used for space applications are based on the III-V material systems (eg. GaAs, GaInP).  However, innovative and novel material systems capable of more effectively utilizing the solar spectrum could provide tremendous advantages for space missions.  For example, recent work examining nano-structures have shown interesting advancements.  Some areas of interest for this topic include space environmental effects, electro-optical properties, and performance parameters for candidate material systems.  Specific projects can be tailored to students’ interests and skills, but will require a basic understanding of electrical, optical, and materials properties.  Students selected for this research opportunity will work with their mentor to develop a productive work plan which will be synergistic with their field of study and the Air Force Research Laboratory’s mission.

Advanced Signals for Navigation and Timing Applications
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The project involves modifying and designing signals for the purpose of navigation and timing.  The project will include detailed signal design and analysis of various signal modulations, examples include but are not limited to amplitude modulations, continuous phase modulation and Binary Phase Offset Carrier. The project will include MATLAB simulation of advanced signal design in order to model the new signal performance in various channel models, interference with Global Navigation Satellite (GNSS)signals, and detection/error rates.

Advanced Solar Array Technology Development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Kyle H Montgomery, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Ph.D.
AFRL/RVSVP is developing advanced photovoltaic power system technologies to support space as well as ground applications.  This work includes development of advanced solar cells, solar blanket and panel technologies as well as solar arrays.  This particular topic is focused on solar array blanket, panel and array technologies.  These activities include developments that impact solar cell configuration, such as advanced semiconductor metallization, solar cell interconnect technologies, novel cover glass replacement technologies, as well as development and testing of advanced rigid panel and flexible blanket assembly technologies.  At the highest level of integration, work in this area includes collaboration with members of AFRL/RVSVS on advanced solar array development.  Specific projects can be tailored to students’ interests and skills, but will require a basic understanding of electrical, optical, mechanical and materials properties.  Students selected for this research opportunity will work with their mentor to develop a productive work plan which will be synergistic with their graduate work and the Air Force Research Laboratory’s mission.

Aging effects of GEO Sats on photometric signatures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Scott Milster, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Student will collect photometric data on select GEO satellites with our new 75cm telescope.  Then combine this information with older data to determine the effects of space ageing upon their photometric signatures.

Algorithms for an Ensemble of Advanced Clocks
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Clock technology is crucial in many applications, both for timing and as a component of navigation systems. The best atomic clocks are expensive, cumbersome, highly sensitive to environmental conditions, and subject to performance limitations imposed by physics. One way to improve clock performance is to combine the outputs of multiple clocks into an “ensemble” or “composite clock”. The resulting output behaves as a virtual clock that has the potential to outperform each of the individual clocks.
Students will develop improved capabilities for combining and testing ensembles of advanced clocks. Tasks may include development of a sophisticated simulation testbed for advanced clocks that can be used to predict ensemble performance, or implementation and evaluation of various composite clock algorithms. Algorithms will be tested in simulation or with laboratory data, as appropriate.

Analysis of Experimental Laser Performance
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert L. Johnson, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The Starfire Optical Range at Kirtland AFB, NM uses large telescopes with adaptive optics to image satellites LEO to GEO using a Sodium Beacon Guidestar (NaLGS). The guidestar illuminates a layer of sodium approximately 90Km in altitude which is approximately 10Km thick. Require student to perform analysis of an experimental sodium guidestar laser and provide design/analysis on how to broaden the sodium line return. This task would include lab work with a laser to improve performance and investigate current design problems.

Analysis of expermintal laser performance
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert L. Johnson, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Starfire Optical Range at Kirtland AFB, NM uses large telescopes with adaptive optics to image satellites LEO to GEO using a Sodium Beacon Guidestar (NaLGS). The guidestar illuminates a layer of sodium approximately 90Km in altitude which is approximately 10Km thick. Require student to perform analysis of an experimental sodium guidestar laser and provide design/analysis on how to broaden the sodium line return. This task would include lab work with a laser to improve performance and investigate current design problems.

Analytical Techniques for Heterogenous Log Files
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The student will implement existing or develop new algorithms for conducting real-time or post-processed analyses of heterogeneous log files generated by embedded computing systems. Analyses will focus on identifying anomalous behavior as a result of either hardware, software, or user interactions. Example logs and log formats will be provided for testing of developed software and algorithms.

Applications of a Cortical Algorithm to image recognition
Summer 2017
Mentor: Arthur Henry Edwards, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The call for increased computational performance on power constrained spacecraft will be difficult to achieve without dramatic changes in both computer architectures and algorithms. Our Branch has an ongoing effort in benchmarking algorithms on unique hardware. Among these are neuromorphic platforms in which the computing circuits behave like neurons in the brain instead of like traditional microprocessors. These architectures call for new algorithms that mimic neural processes such as neural networks, or even more specifically cortical processes. This project seeks to explore a cortical computational paradigm for relatively simple image recognition problems that uses sparse distributed representations of data that are intrinsically robust to noise. The paradigm is based on a theory of the neocortex called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). The student will make use of NuPIC (Numenta Platform for Intelligent Computing) an open source framework for machine intelligence based on the HTM model.

Applications of a Cortical Algorithm to image recognition
Summer 2017
Mentor: Arthur Henry Edwards, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The call for increased computational performance on power constrained spacecraft will be difficult to achieve without dramatic changes in both computer architectures and algorithms. Our Branch has an ongoing effort in benchmarking algorithms on unique hardware. Among these are neuromorphic platforms in which the computing circuits behave like neurons in the brain instead of like traditional microprocessors. These architectures call for new algorithms that mimic neural processes such as neural networks, or even more specifically cortical processes. This project seeks to explore a cortical computational paradigm for relatively simple image recognition problems that uses sparse distributed representations of data that are intrinsically robust to noise. The paradigm is based on a theory of the neocortex called Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM). The student will make use of NuPIC (Numenta Platform for Intelligent Computing) an open source framework for machine intelligence based on the HTM model.

Applying n-body integrators and tidal dissipation to exoplanet systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael Nayak, Directed Energy
Location: AMOS
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
n-body propagation codes are used in a number of GN&C and orbit determination applications. However, modeling tidal interactions due to the Earth's tidal bulge, the effects of high-order gravity harmonics and even resonances can complicate trajectory analysis. This project aims to rigorously test combined n-body and tidal propagation codes by applying them to the case of compact exo-planetary systems. 

The recent NASA Kepler mission discovered a host of “compact” planetary systems, which host multiple planets in close vicinity to each other. The conventional knowledge is that planets in such compact systems would not be able to host a satellite. However, my initial simulation work finds that this is not true: such compact systems host several dynamical regions of minimum-energy stability, in which moons might be able to stably reside. Further, if exomoons exist, they would necessarily be located in these stable regions [Jaime+, 2012, MNRAS]. 

Using the Kepler-32 system as a prototype, this project will attempt to “detect” exomoons in compact exoplanet systems using dynamical simulations, decades in advance of telescope imaging. The goal is to develop a high-fidelity symplectic integrator that incorporates n-body gravity, tidal and relativistic effects. The student will take developed n-body code and add in the effects of tides, and if time permits, general relativity. This mathematically complex task will allow us to rigorously characterize the orbital evolution of both planets and proposed moons. Second, we will calculate regions of dynamic stability for each Kepler-32 planet where moons could survive in stable orbits, following methods by [Pichardo+, 2005, 2008, MNRAS]. For example, Kepler-32f, at 0.01 AU from the star, shows no regions of dynamical stability. 

A three-minute talk about this project may be found here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R7OKCT0CO5Q

Prospective applicants are encouraged to contact Dr. Michael Nayak (michael.nayak.1@us.af.mil) with any questions, even prior to applying.

Architecture Analytics for Next Generation Space Applications
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jesse Keith Mee, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
AFRL/RVS has established a dedicated architecture analytics testbed under the Space Performance Analytics and Computing Environment Research (SPACER) project. The objective of this project is to provide AFRL with an organic, in-house, capability to assess processing options for next generation mission applications. This addresses the increasing challenge of mapping mission requirements to hardware and software implementations for space computing applications. The topic provides several summer research opportunities for students interested in optimization and evaluation of mission application code on space hardware. The selected summer scholar will be given mission application algorithms/code and tasked to examine methods for optimization of the code (parallel constructs, optimized libraries, etc.) and compilation/execution of the software on hardware resources. This will allow for detailed analysis of the application’s performance on different hardware architecture alternatives, providing critical insight into the computational requirements for next generation mission applications. This effort will provide a valuable capability to the Air Force, guiding future science and technology investments decisions.

Architecture Analytics for Next Generation Space Applications
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jesse Keith Mee, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
AFRL/RVS has established a dedicated architecture analytics testbed under the Space Performance Analytics and Computing Environment Research (SPACER) project. The objective of this project is to provide AFRL with an organic, in-house, capability to assess processing options for next generation mission applications. This addresses the increasing challenge of mapping mission requirements to hardware and software implementations for space computing applications. The topic provides several summer research opportunities for students interested in optimization and evaluation of mission application code on space hardware. The selected summer scholar will be given mission application algorithms/code and tasked to examine methods for optimization of the code (parallel constructs, optimized libraries, etc.) and compilation/execution of the software on hardware resources. This will allow for detailed analysis of the application’s performance on different hardware architecture alternatives, providing critical insight into the computational requirements for next generation mission applications. This effort will provide a valuable capability to the Air Force, guiding future science and technology investments decisions

Assessing Computational Tools for Small UAVs
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ken David Blackburn, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Modern airframe/aircraft design requires the prediction of aerodynamic performance through the use of flow solvers with varying levels of fidelity, e.g., panel methods, Euler, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), and LES. Typically, the higher the fidelity the analysis performed, the greater the veracity of the results but the larger the computational requirements. Understanding this tradeoff is key to successful airframe develop within time and cost constraints. This is especially critical in the burgeoning
field of low-cost, small UAVs, for which rapid prototyping and fielding is necessary.

This project aims to assess open-source and commercially-available aerodynamic tools for aircraft characterization against wind tunnel data. Candidate software is Athena Vortex Lattice, OpenVSP, and CART3D, though the student is free to propose other software. Student will evaluate software based on ease-of-use, computational requirements, and ultimately accuracy against wind tunnel data they collect for several generic aircraft models.

Assessment of Outer Zone Radiation Belt Models
Summer 2017
Mentor: James P McCollough, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Near-Earth space is a harsh environment. It contains the radiation belt, energetic charged particles trapped by Earth’s magnetic field that can adversely affect spacecraft and their payloads.  

The outer zone of the radiation belt, consisting of electrons spanning tens of kiloelectron-volts to megaelectron-volts in energy, is dynamic and driven by disturbances in the solar wind. It fills a wide swath of space, from altitudes of hundreds of kilometers  to over 35,000 kilometers. 

The dynamic and driven nature of the outer zone means particle radiation levels can change rapidly (within minutes). Most outer zone models are based on diffusive transport and employ the Fokker-Planck formalism to evolve the system in time. Given the limitations of our understanding of the outer zone, these models benefit from the assimilation of in-situ data where available.

This project will quantitatively assess the performance of state-of-the-art and cutting edge radiation belt models available to the scientific community. It will lead to a better understanding of where the gaps in our knowledge reside and what fundamental research is needed for progress in this area.

Atomic clock development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nathan Lemke, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
We are developing new atomic clock technologies. In particular, our interest is in optical clocks, which use lasers to measure the "ticking" of the atom . This project aims to apply the technique of laser cooling (i.e. using lasers to slow down or "cool" the atoms) to produce a novel clock architecture.

Augmentation of the QUEST Measurement Model with Directional Statistics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Morgan Baldwin, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The QUaternion ESTimator (QUEST) is a popular method to estimate a body’s attitude and its uncertainty given two or more vector observations. The QUEST algorithm assumes a specific error model for these observed vectors. If this error model does not appropriately model the errors present in the vectors, the accuracy of the QUEST attitude solution and its associated uncertainty can be degraded. This topic seeks to augment the QUEST algorithm with a directional error model for the observed vectors in an effort to more appropriately quantify their errors. Applicants to this topic are encouraged to have a fundamental understanding of the QUEST algorithm, attitude representations, batch estimation, and Bayesian inference.

Autonomous RC Car
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ken David Blackburn, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School
Intern will review literature and current work and analysis at AFRL/RW.  Intern will work on vehicle assembly and software, perform ground tests, and assist with testing of autonomous RC cars.  Cars are being equipped with autopilots and radios to enable coopertive behavior, and to validate coopertive behavior simulation.

Autonomous RC Cars
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ken David Blackburn, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Intern will review literature and current work and analysis at AFRL/RW. Intern will work on vehicle assembly and software, perform ground tests, and assist with testing of autonomous RC cars. Cars are being equipped with autopilots and radios to enable cooperative behavior, and to validate cooperative behavior simulation.

Autonomous Vehicles Lab: Multirotor System and Algorithm Development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Kevin Brink, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This is a large summer program with multiple PhD and masters students, postdocs, and potentially government contractors, who will be working together at the AFRL/UF REEF flight lab to build up quadrotor system capabilities. There is a need for students with backgrounds in Estimation and/or Control theory and students should also have Hardware experience (i.e. quadrotors or other vehicles, Pixhawk autopilot or other microcontrollers).

Project goals are to develop a hardware/simulation/algorithm suite and related capabilities that allow for proof-of-concept demonstrations of autonomous aerial systems.  Emphasis will be placed on GPS-denied and cooperative estimation in general and vehicle localization in unstructured environments, including transition between environments (indoor to outdoor, etc.). Students should have a working knowledge (or gain a working knowledge prior to the internship) or ROS and C++ or Python.

Azobenzene Loaded Ordered Mesoporous Materials for Initiation Studies
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stacy Manni, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project entails the synthesis of a series of ordered mesoporous organosilica materials with an azobenzene ligand of various loadings. Materials will be characterized and down-selected to probe the hot spot theory of initiation. Final materials will be loaded with an energetic material which will be used to test initiation sensitivity changes.

Student will continue this project where a previous Air Armament Scholar left off (synthesis is approximately 75% complete, leaving characterization and testing as the bulk of this project.)

Benchmarking Processing Algorithms for Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Carballo Pineda, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Processing requirements for future spacecraft are expected to be very high. For example, high resolution sensors are expected to produce data at rates too high to transmit all the data to ground. Other applications generate less data, but require complicated decision making with little intervention from the ground. Size, weight and power restrictions associated with operation in space are forcing us to examine the capabilities of a broad range of processing architectures ranging from the traditional - e.g., multicore processing, many core processing with graphics processors (GPUs), Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) - to the novel - e.g., neural networks, memristor-based circuits, approximate computing, etc. Students working on this project will aid in the development and benchmarking of model processing kernels that will allow us to compare the capabilities of these architectures for various applications.

Big Data Processing For Space Situational Awareness
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert Sivilli, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
This open-ended project will investigate new and innovative approaches and untapped information sources that will enable rapid detect and characterization of space objects. Specifically looking at leveraging existing open-AI and cloud computing architectures to explore the art of the possible as applied to the space domain.

Big Data Processing For Space Situational Awareness
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert Sivilli, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
This open-ended project will investigate new and innovative approaches and untapped information sources that will enable rapid detect and characterization of space objects. Specifically looking at leveraging existing open-AI and cloud computing architectures to explore the art of the possible as applied to the space domain.

Big Data Processing For Space Situational Awareness
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert Sivilli, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
This open-ended project will investigate new and innovative approaches and untapped information sources that will enable rapid detect and characterization of space objects. Specifically looking at leveraging existing open-AI and cloud computing architectures to explore the art of the possible as applied to the space domain.

Biologically Inspired Flight Control
Summer 2017
Mentor: Rhoe A Thompson, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Natural biological systems use large numbers of sensors that measure quantities directly related to forces acting on the body to feed their motion control process. This “Force” feedback allows the system to respond very quickly to disturbances and deal with changes in the body characteristics over a wide range of control requirements. From an engineering perspective, this means the ability to operate in a wider range of weather conditions, the ability to compensate for airframe damage, and the robustness to handle a wide range of variations in mass and aerodynamic properties. One proposed concept is to use distributed micro-mechanical accelerometers to discern not only the body’s angular acceleration, but also linear acceleration and body angular velocity. The goal of this project is to build a simple test setup that demonstrates the ability to observe these quantities using a micro-controller like an Arduino. Using a flight motion simulator in AFRL’s KHILS facility, the capability can then be tested against a known motion time history. A junior or senior level engineer with aerospace, mechanical, or electrical engineering background is anticipated.

Biologically Inspired Magnetic Navigation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brian Kyle Taylor, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School
This project is centered on conducting experiments and collecting data to test, design, and construct various types of biologically inspired sensors.  This is cross-disciplinary work that draws from various aspects of biology and engineering.  Potential tasks include but are not limited to:
•	Conducting experiments and collecting data on engineered systems both in a laboratory and out in the field
•	Analyzing gathered data
•	Modeling, simulation, and design of biologically inspired sensor concepts
•	Physical construction of biologically inspired sensor concepts
NOTE: Project may involve being around very low level magnetic fields.  Individuals with medical implants may need to exercise caution

Biologically Inspired Magnetic Navigation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brian Kyle Taylor, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
This project is centered on conducting experiments and collecting data to further knowledge on how animals use the Earth's magnetic field to navigate, and how the principles observed in animals can be leveraged for engineered navigation systems. This is cross-disciplinary work that draws from various aspects of biology and engineering.  Potential tasks include but are not limited to:
•	Conducting experiments and collecting data on engineered systems both in a laboratory and out in the field
•	Analyzing gathered data
•	Modeling, simulation, and design of biologically inspired sensor concepts
•	Physical construction of biologically inspired sensor concepts
•	Agent based simulations that employ different sensor concepts to enable a simulated agent to perceive and navigate within its environment
•	Agent based simulations that use biologically inspired strategies and algorithms to guide an agent from a starting location to a goal location
NOTE: Project may involve being around very low level magnetic fields.  Individuals with medical implants may need to exercise caution

Caiblration of imaging spectrometers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Russell Cooper, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The optical calibration lab is currently developing cutting edge techniques, both in instrumentation and data analysis in order to increase the functionality of space and air sensor platforms. A successful applicant will be able to design and build optical tests used to calibrate Air Force sensors.

Calibration of Imaging Spectrometers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Russell Cooper, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Our lab’s research focuses on developing and implementing next generation optical calibration techniques for space and airborne sensors. System level calibration occurs at the end of assembly and integration and consequently is often squeezed by operation or launch deadlines. We aim to increase the accuracy of the calibrations while decreasing the time needed to perform the calibration. Expanding calibration techniques requires new experimental techniques as well as next generation algorithms with which to derive and apply the calibration matrixes. We use a variety of tools, such as supercontinuum lasers, tunable optical parametric oscillators, NIST traceable transfer radiometers, and large flat field light sources developed in house in order to carry out radiometric, spectral, and scattering calibrations. We seek students with a background in optics, lasers, algorithm development and/or Matlab.

Calibration of Imaging Spectrometers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Russell Cooper, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Our lab’s research focuses on developing and implementing next generation optical calibration techniques for space and airborne sensors. System level calibration occurs at the end of assembly and integration and consequently is often squeezed by operation or launch deadlines. We aim to increase the accuracy of the calibrations while decreasing the time needed to perform the calibration. Expanding calibration techniques requires new experimental techniques as well as next generation algorithms with which to derive and apply the calibration matrixes. We use a variety of tools, such as supercontinuum lasers, tunable optical parametric oscillators, NIST traceable transfer radiometers, and large flat field light sources developed in house in order to carry out radiometric, spectral, and scattering calibrations. We seek students with a background in optics, lasers, algorithm development and/or Matlab.

Characterization of biological photonic crystals
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jimmy E Touma, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The last two decades have seen a tremendous interest in “controlling light” using photonic crystals.  Photonic crystals, also known as photonic band-gap materials, are periodic structures that forbid light of a certain frequency range from propagating in the material. Photonic crystals occur naturally in beetle and butterfly wings and on the feathers of certain birds. They are also attributed to the active color change in chameleons. By studying the properties of photonic 
crystals, researchers can gain insight in how insects interpret reflected light signals from other insects to distinguish between conspecifics and insects of other species, and to recognize gender 
in conspecifics.

 We would like to develop methodologies to analyze the band structure of photonic crystal lattices of design interest to
* compute the reflection and transmission spectra for finite photonic crystal arrays with due attention being paid to frequency bands and incidence angles of interest
* develop a complete numerical models for select crystal designs 
*Validate our designs and hypotheses by analyzing data produced by the experiments conducted within this project.

Research is not limited to PC but can also include metamaterials & metasurfaces.

Characterization of Electrode Materials for space-based energy storage
Summer 2017
Mentor: David M Wilt, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Energy storage is of significant interest for many applications from power tools to electric vehicles to satellites.  Improvements in energy density, power density, charge/discharge rates, and cycle life are necessary to meet the demanding requirements of both commercial and military needs. The space environment can be particularly harsh for batteries with extreme temperatures, pulsed discharge, and ten's of thousands of charge/discharge cycles seen during spacecraft lifetime. This in conjunction with the need to reduce both weight and volume make it imperative that advanced materials are discovered which can lead to improved energy storage devices. This project will utilize advanced characterization tools in the Space Power Lab such as XRD, SEM, AFM, and potentiostat/galvanostat measurements to examine advanced materials and then relate materials properties with electrical device behavior in order to identify key material parameters that lead to better energy storage materials.

Characterization of the Robustness Properties for Nonlinear Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brendan Bialy, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Nonlinear and adaptive control methods are critical technologies for next generation aircraft. The high velocity and maneuverability intrinsic to these platforms jeopardize the stability of traditional flight control designs. Nonlinear and adaptive control strategies have been shown, in numerical studies, to not only enable flight control of next generation aircraft, but also provide an insurance policy against system uncertainties. The major hurdle to fielding nonlinear and adaptive control strategies in flight demonstrations is the establishment of robustness properties which are required for flight tests. Linear systems have well established robustness criteria such as the gain and phase margins for single-input, single-output systems. However, these well-established robustness analysis techniques don't apply to nonlinear systems which are more apt descriptions for the dynamics of next generation aircraft.

This project involves the characterization of stability margins for multi-input, multi-output nonlinear systems. Students will be responsible for developing and conducting procedures for numerically computing the closed-loop stability margins using MatLab/Simulink. Students will also be expected to work as a team with engineers to accomplish the tasks related to the development of the numerical procedure, including validation and verification of the procedure.

Characterizing GPS Satellite Amplifiers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Madeleine Naudeau, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The Advanced GPS Technologies program has taken delivery of a highly efficient, high power amplifier designed for the PNT payload of a GPS satellite.  The performance of the amplifier needs to be characterized to ensure suitability for the application, determine performance boundaries, and construct transfer function models.  To this end, laboratory testing with tones, GPS signal simulators, and GPS receivers need to be conducted, the data analyzed, and the models constructed.

Chemical Device Development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Thomas L Peng, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Interested in science and technology? Why not try spending a summer working at an AFRL laboratory attempting to develop a chemical system for establishing and removing novel coatings on a variety of materials on demand. Work during this internship can cover a wide range of areas such as preparing chemical solutions, carrying out experiments designed by in-house experts, writing computer programs, learning scientific principles, and conducting precision measurements. All required training for this internship will be provided on-site. No prior experience working in a laboratory environment or education beyond what was asked of you during your high school education is needed.

Chemistry associated with re-entry vehicles
Summer 2017
Mentor: Benjamin Douglas Prince, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Re-entry vehicles typically reenter the atmosphere at velocities greater than Mach 8 which results in the formation of a bow shock that dissipates the vehicle’s kinetic energy. The temperature in this bow shock may exceed 20,000 K, and this leads to dissociation of N2 and O2 that constitute the atmosphere. The large pressure and temperature gradients occurring in the shock wave at this hypersonic velocity result in flow around the vehicle which is not in thermal equilibrium. Many of these effects are currently explained through complex modeling involving a significant number of chemical reactions and kinetic rate constants. Some of these reactions are only theoretically predicted and have no experimental underpinning at the appropriate energy conditions. In this project, the selected scholar will use guided ion beam and/or luminescence techniques applied to relevant, selected single-collision reactions to measure experimental cross sections and other experimental observables. These findings are expected to be incorporated into the aforementioned models or provide experimental baselines for theoretical investigations.

Code Development and Refinement for Astrodynamics and Tracking Applications
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ryan M. Weisman, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Commonly, prototype codes are developed for specific applications/purposes and sometimes stitched together to form processing chains that may not be optimized for speed, memory allocation, or information handling/hand-off.  In dealing with sigma point filters, propagation for each sigma point can be done in parallel but the final solution must combine and process all the propagation results, so the components of the integrator type/structure, the equations of motion to be integrated, and the filter update function must take these characteristics into account.  A problem can arise if the equations are motion are written in scalar form making evaluation of multiple initial conditions computationally inefficient, if the equations require transcendental/recursive function evaluations, additional consideration is required.  In dealing with multiple objects that have probabilities for data association and motion models, these must be available and accessible to update the filter solution for all objects.  With multiple developers at various points in time, some functions may be written with different naming conventions or implement an algorithm in a different way but yielding the same results, this creates redundant components so it is crucial to identify redundant/no longer used routines in an automated search fashion.  This project seeks to refine and develop information hand-off between pre-existing components, develop and run unit and component tests to ensure proper operation, develop and implement computationally appropriate components, evaluate processing prototypes in multiple languages, develop methodologies for more efficient configuration custody.

Cognitive computation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Dodson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
A novel way of organizing scientific and engineering data, algorithms and the changes to both data and algorithms has been locally developed.  The techniques provide a powerful ability to organize and cognitively understand the linkage as both data and algorithms evolve over time and minimizing time organizing research efforts.  The scholar should be welled versed in software such as Python or Matlab or C++ and be interested in exploring new methods for maximizing computational efforts while minimizing time spent to reach well documented scientific results.  Real-world data and algorithms will be utilized to aid in the software development effort.

Cognitive computation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Dodson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
A novel way of organizing scientific and engineering data, algorithms and the changes to both data and algorithms has been locally developed.  The techniques provide a powerful ability to organize and cognitively understand the linkage as both data and algorithms evlove over time and minimizing time organizing research efforts.  The scholar should be well versed in software such as Python or Matlab or C++ and be interested in exploring new methods for maximizing computational efforts while minimizing time spent to reach well dcoumented scientific results.  Real-worled data and algorithms will beutilized to aid in the software development effort.

Cognitive computation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Dodson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
A novel way of organizing scientific and engineering data, algorithms and the changes to both data and algorithms has been locally developed.  The techniques provide a powerful ability to organize and cognitively understand the linkage as both data and algorithms evlove over time and minimizing time organizing research efforts.  The scholar should be well versed in software such as Python or Matlab or C++ and be interested in exploring new methods for maximizing computational efforts while minimizing time spent to reach well dcoumented scientific results.  Real-worled data and algorithms will beutilized to aid in the software development effort.

Cold Atom Experimental Control and Data Acquisition
Summer 2017
Mentor: Spencer E Olson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Our laboratory is developing inertial navigation sensors and clocks using cold-atom technology.  The relevant experiments and prototypes for cold-atom sensors typically require specialized timing-control hardware, software, and computer integration.  We are developing means to utilize micro-controllers, low-power computers, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and open-source software for data acquisition and experimental control.  The assigned project will depend on the student's interest and experience, but could include micro-controller programming, FPGA programming, low-power computer-experiment integration, and/or development and testing of new cold-atom control routines/hardware for use in future or current experiments.

Cold Atom Experimental Control and Data Acquisition
Summer 2017
Mentor: Spencer E Olson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Our laboratory is developing inertial navigation sensors and clocks using cold-atom technology.  The relevant experiments and prototypes for cold-atom sensors typically require specialized timing-control hardware, software, and computer integration.  We are developing means to utilize micro-controllers, low-power computers, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and open-source software for data acquisition and experimental control.  The assigned project will depend on the student's interest and experience, but could include micro-controller programming, FPGA programming, low-power computer-experiment integration, and/or development and testing of new cold-atom control routines/hardware for use in future or current experiments.

Cold Atom Experimental Control and Data Acquisition
Summer 2017
Mentor: Spencer E Olson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Our laboratory is developing inertial navigation sensors and clocks using cold-atom technology.  The relevant experiments and prototypes for cold-atom sensors typically require specialized timing-control hardware, software, and computer integration.  We are developing means to utilize micro-controllers, low-power computers, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and open-source software for data acquisition and experimental control.  The assigned project will depend on the student's interest and experience, but could include micro-controller programming, FPGA programming, low-power computer-experiment integration, and/or development and testing of new cold-atom control routines/hardware for use in future or current experiments.

Cold Atom Sources
Summer 2017
Mentor: Matthew Squires, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Cold atoms are used to make precision measurements of rotation, acceleration, time (think atomic clocks), etc.  Atoms are typically cooled using laser cooling techniques to temperatures less than 100 micro Kelvin to reduce thermal noise and increase measurement time.  We are investigating new cold atoms sources that either reduce the size, weight, and power (SWAP) requirements of laser cooled sources or that can cool atoms without lasers.  Reducing SWAP is an important considering for making compact devices that can be transitioned from the laboratory into real world applications.  Cooling atoms without laser opens the possibility of using atoms that currently cannot be cooled but have properties that are of scientific and/or technical interest.   The assigned project will depend on the student’s interest and experience.

Cold Atom Sources
Summer 2017
Mentor: Matthew Squires, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Cold atoms are used to make precision measurements of rotation, acceleration, time (think atomic clocks), etc.  Atoms are typically cooled using laser cooling techniques to temperatures less than 100 micro Kelvin to reduce thermal noise and increase measurement time.  We are investigating new cold atoms sources that either reduce the size, weight, and power (SWAP) requirements of laser cooled sources or that can cool atoms without lasers.  Reducing SWAP is an important considering for making compact devices that can be transitioned from the laboratory into real world applications.  Cooling atoms without laser opens the possibility of using atoms that currently cannot be cooled but have properties that are of scientific and/or technical interest.   The assigned project will depend on the student’s interest and experience.

Comparison of Advanced Mesh Refinement and Conventional Meshing Methods in the CFD Solution to a Canonical Problem
Summer 2017
Mentor: Pedro Lopez-Fernandez, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
A canonical problem (sphere, cylinder, ovoid, or generic missile body) will be selected and a simulation of supersonic flow about it will be obtained using two different meshing methods:  Advanced Mesh Refinement (AMR) and conventional meshing.  Different versions of the LESLIE3D Multiphase physics solver will likely be required.  Comparison of the solutions will be done, and conclusions drawn.

Complex Electromagnetic Structures (Metamaterials & Subwavelength Photonics)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jeffery W Allen, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Opportunity in electromagnetics, radar, imaging, holography, electromagnetic materials and composites, and interest in applied research efforts and engineered electromagnetic materials /Metamaterial. The work covers a broad range of frequencies from UHF to W-band/mm-wave and optical wavelengths and may include component design/integration and characterization. Simulation/design will be carried out in CST/HFFS/COMSOL as well as in house CEM codes. The efforts will include designing, fabricating, and testing prototype devices as part of larger collaborative efforts. The candidate will utilize test equipment, optical and microwave simulation software, and the micro-fabrication facilities to support these efforts. Topics of interest include wide-scan wideband planar arrays, low-profile arrays on conformal platforms, planar and conformal electromagnetic structures, frequency selective surfaces, electrically small antennas, conformal arrays and lens designs.
Opportunities exist in fundamental physics of electromagnetic radiation matter interaction and electronic properties. This will include propagation, mechanisms for absorption and emission, scattering and quantum effects. One focus of the work will be to explore how to control the spatial anisotropic properties of materials or material systems, natural or engineered, to control electromagnetic radiation. We will also be exploring new analytical, quasi-analytical and homogenization techniques to describe engineered electromagnetic materials so they can be applied to practical devices and systems

Constrained Nonlinear Algorithms for Spacecraft Guidance and Control
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen Phillips, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This topic will focus on solving the constrained path planning and trajectory generation problem for spacecraft relative-motion using nonlinear control techniques. Particular interest lies in observer based methods coupled with a variable structure based control law.  A comparative analysis of approaches from literature will be performed, leading to the development or modification of approach to these problems.

Constrained Optimal Control for Spacecraft Guidance and Attitude Control
Summer 2017
Mentor: Richard Scott Erwin, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This topic will focus on the development and application of methods for solving constrained path planning and trajectory generation for spacecraft relative-motion control problems.  The effort will involve the investigation and analysis of algorithms that are computationally efficient, can handle control constraints and (possibly time-varying) state constraints, and which allow some level of optimization of system resources, specifically fuel usage.  A comparative analysis of approaches from the literature on specific problems of interest will be performed, potentially leading to or involving the development and/or modification of approaches to tailor them to these problems.

References:

1.	Weiss, A., Peterson, C., Baldwin, M., Erwin, R. S., and Kolmanovsky, I., “Safe Positively Invariant Sets for Spacecraft Obstacle Avoidance," AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 720 – 732, 2015.

2.	Jewison, C., Erwin, R. S., and Saenz-Otero, A., “Model Predictive Control with Ellipsoid Obstacle Constraints for Spacecraft Rendezvous,” Workshop on Advanced Control and Navigation for Autonomous Aerospace Vehicles (ACNAAV ’15), Seville, Spain, June 2015.

3.	Baldwin, M., Erwin, R. S., and Kolmanovsky, I. V., “Robust Controller for Constrained Relative Motion Maneuvering with Disturbance Rejection,” Proc. AIAA Guid., Nav., & Contr. Conf., AIAA 2013-4721, Boston, MA, August 2013.

4.	Kuffner, James J., and Steven M. LaValle. "RRT-connect: An efficient approach to single-query path planning." In Robotics and Automation, 2000. Proceedings. ICRA'00. IEEE International Conference on, vol. 2, pp. 995-1001. IEEE, 2000.

5.	Richards, Arthur, Tom Schouwenaars, Jonathan P. How, and Eric Feron. "Spacecraft trajectory planning with avoidance constraints using mixed-integer linear programming." Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics 25, no. 4 (2002): 755-764.

Control and Estimation in Spacecraft Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Daniel Petersen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Often estimation and control are analyzed separately in system theory, but this project will focus on systems in which control and estimation are both considered. We will look at how the control of a spacecraft system affects it estimation and vice versa.  By analyzing such systems, we will attempt to design controllers and estimators that work well together in the same system, thus allowing the spacecraft to run more efficiently.  If time permits, we will also look at simultaneous control and estimation in spacecraft systems.

Control of Coupled Translational and Rotational Dynamics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Daniel Petersen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
It has been shown in many situations that the orientation of a spacecraft can affect its translational motion and vice versa.  Examples of this occurring are when disturbance forces are accounted for in the mathematical model or when the alignment of thrusters produces both a force and a moment.  By taking into account the coupling motion, spacecraft maneuvers could be performed more easily and with less control effort than trying to control the orientation and position separately.  This project will look at the rotational and translational coupling in spacecraft systems, determine which method to elegantly represent the dynamics, analyze its controllability properties, and design controllers for simultaneous control of position and orientation.

Control of Spacecraft with Multiple Actuators
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Daniel Petersen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will focus on looking at spacecraft systems with multiple different types of actuators for the purpose of designing control arrays that can increase the scientific gain of spacecraft.  The controllability of theses systems will be analyzed, as well as their limitations due to (a) different control rates, (b) range of controllability, and (c) saturation limitations.  After a controllability analysis, several control schemes will be devised for these systems.

Control of Spacecraft with Multiple Actuators
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Daniel Petersen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project will focus on looking at spacecraft systems with multiple different types of actuators for the purpose of designing control arrays that can increase the scientific gain of spacecraft.  The controllability of theses systems will be analyzed, as well as their limitations due to (a) different control rates, (b) range of controllability, and (c) saturation limitations.  After a controllability analysis, several control schemes will be devised for these systems.

Cooperative quadrotor research and development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ryan Sherrill, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The future battlefield promises to feature inaccessible areas and highly integrated threats that prevent current systems from freely navigating or performing reconnaissance. One potential solution is to establish a network of many small robotic vehicles to collaboratively explore and navigate unknown spaces.  In addition, cooperative weapons may be able conduct certain types of operations at a much higher pace and efficiency than a team of humans.  

Multiple types of work are available including: algorithm development (vehicle motion, path planning, autonomy, task bidding); hardware/software integration (laser range finders, optic cameras, plenoptic cameras); and test site development (indoor position systems, vehicle to ground command and control).  Students will be matched to jobs based on their previous experience and interest.

Creating Foldable Composite Structures for Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael Edwin Peterson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Utilizing thin, high strain composites in place of traditional metallic mechanisms enables a new generation of deployable space structures. In a discipline where every gram of mass matters, these light-weight composites offer a slew of benefits over their more common metallic counterparts. One particular trait is the ability to package in much tighter configurations in preparation for launch; a characteristic highly desired with the ever increasing interest in small satellites. A challenge manifests in the methods to integrate these foldable or rollable composite members within a higher order structure while focusing on reliability and simplicity. The focus of the student’s investigation is to devise novel structural integration concepts to maximize performance from stowage through deployment to the on-orbit operational state. The student will have access to CAD modeling (Solidworks), computational tools (Matlab and ABAQUS), and state-of-the-art fabrication facilities with 3D printing capabilities in order to rapidly test and physically understand how well their new designs perform.

Creating Foldable Composite Structures for Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael Edwin Peterson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Utilizing thin, high strain composites in place of traditional metallic mechanisms enables a new generation of deployable space structures. In a discipline where every gram of mass matters, these light-weight composites offer a slew of benefits over their more common metallic counterparts. One particular trait is the ability to package in much tighter configurations in preparation for launch; a characteristic highly desired with the ever increasing interest in small satellites. A challenge manifests in the methods to integrate these foldable or rollable composite members within a higher order structure while focusing on reliability and simplicity. The focus of the student’s investigation is to devise novel structural integration concepts to maximize performance from stowage through deployment to the on-orbit operational state. The student will have access to CAD modeling (Solidworks), computational tools (Matlab and ABAQUS), and state-of-the-art fabrication facilities with 3D printing capabilities in order to rapidly test and physically understand how well their new designs perform.

Data Association Algorithms for Space Object Tracking and Change Detection
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The goal of this effort is to improve upon several aspects of the space object tracking, orbit determination, and cataloging process.  One focus of this effort is the correct assignment of measurements to a particular space object.  If two or more objects are in close proximity, this increases the probability that a measurement obtained for one space object might be incorrectly assigned to another object in the cluster.  A second focus regards processing measurements of a space object to determine changes to its trajectory, brought about by maneuvers or other events.  It is expected that this effort would involve statistical methods such as data association and estimation/filtering, as well as optimization, linear/nonlinear programming, and feedback control design.

Daylight Imaging Research at MSSC
Summer 2017
Mentor: Thomas Ryan Swindle, Directed Energy
Location: AMOS
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Maui Space Surveillance Complex (MSSC) combines imaging and non-imaging R&D with the largest optical telescope in the US Department of Defense to prove techniques and meet real world space surveillance challenges. Research applies to daytime and nighttime observations of LEO/GEO satellites, with a focus on mitigating the effects of and extending performance into higher turbulence regimes. The selected scholar will work with our Daylight Imaging team to develop existing instrumentation and algorithms that extend MSSC’s operations into all-sky, 24/7 research and LEO surveillance capability from the 3.6 m AEOS telescope. Specific projects can be tailored to students’ interests and skills but will require experience in atmospheric turbulence characterization, adaptive optics, and both basic and advanced (e.g. MFBD, DWFS) image processing techniques.

Daylight Satellite Observations
Summer 2017
Mentor: Waid Thomas Schlaegel, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Non-Traditional Sensors Section of the Satellite Assessment Center uses sensors and telescopes not normally used by the US Air Force to observe space objects in order to demonstrate the value of these sensors and telescopes for Space Situational Awareness. In this project, we propose to have a scholar demonstrate the value of using a small telescope to observe satellites in daylight.* This project will require the scholar to perform several planning tasks in preparation to observing taking into account, satellite track, Sun position, weather, sensor capabilities and limitations, and the telescope capabilities and limitations. Then the scholar will execute the plan to capture imagery and/or video of various satellites over the course of the internship. Upon completion of the project, the scholar will be expected to document the results of the project and lessons learned. 

*In order to improve the probability of success, we will concentrate on capturing brighter objects, such as the International Space Station.

Daylight Satellite Observations
Summer 2017
Mentor: Waid Thomas Schlaegel, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The Non-Traditional Sensors Section of the Satellite Assessment Center uses sensors and telescopes not normally used by the US Air Force to observe space objects in order to demonstrate the value of these sensors and telescopes for Space Situational Awareness. In this project, we propose to have a scholar demonstrate the value of using a small telescope to observe satellites in daylight.* This project will require the scholar to perform several planning tasks in preparation to observing taking into account, satellite track, Sun position, weather, sensor capabilities and limitations, and the telescope capabilities and limitations. Then the scholar will execute the plan to capture imagery and/or video of various satellites over the course of the internship. Upon completion of the project, the scholar will be expected to document the results of the project and lessons learned. 
*In order to improve the probability of success, we will concentrate on capturing brighter objects, such as the International Space Station.

Defect Characterization of III-V Optoelectronic Materials and Devices
Summer 2017
Mentor: Elizabeth H Steenbergen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
For devices made of semiconductor materials, such as transistors, solar cells, or detectors, to operate in a  space environment, they must be free of defects, high performing, and reliable.  This project involves characterizing the properties of infrared materials for space applications using photoluminescence, transmission, and high pressure.  The photoluminescence characteristics versus temperature and excitation intensity reveal the contributions of radiative and non-radiative recombination and average phonon and activation energies.  Measurements done under high pressure allow a wider energy space to be accessed for defect characterization.  These results are used to assess the defect concentration and thus the  maturity of the material for the desired operating conditions.

Defect Characterization of III-V Optoelectronic Materials and Devices
Summer 2017
Mentor: Elizabeth H Steenbergen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
For devices made of semiconductor materials, such as transistors, solar cells, or detectors, to operate in a  space environment, they must be free of defects, high performing, and reliable.  This project involves characterizing the properties of infrared materials for space applications using photoluminescence, transmission, and high pressure.  The photoluminescence characteristics versus temperature and excitation intensity reveal the contributions of radiative and non-radiative recombination and average phonon and activation energies.  Measurements done under high pressure allow a wider energy space to be accessed for defect characterization.  These results are used to assess the defect concentration and thus the  maturity of the material for the desired operating conditions.

Deployable Small Satellite Antennas
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jeremy Banik, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Deployable space structures platforms have been successfully used for decades as antenna reflectors, instrument booms, solar arrays, phased array antennas, optical apertures, solar sails, and sun shields.   However, in recent years the space industry has been approaching limitations in size and has encountered reliability problems while spacecraft costs and development timelines have escalated beyond reason.  Strain energy deployments, high strain composite members, and tension-aligned architectures have shown great promise for pushing beyond these limitations.  In response, new deployable platforms must be developed using these approaches that can be produced at a fraction of the cost of existing systems.  Of particular interest is tension-aligned antenna systems and affordable dimensionally stable booms that package into small satellite form factors (spacecraft in the 10 to 100 kg range).  This topic offers a student the opportunity for hands-on research in deployable antenna systems from either the antenna side or structural side.   Structural mechanics students should expect to work closely with electrical engineering students in a highly collaborative project involving analysis, test, and fabrication of foldable antenna concepts.

Design of fine resolution omni-directional wheels for space simulation robots
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen Phillips, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Due to the high cost of space systems, the ability to inspect, service, and repair/refuel these systems on-orbit is highly desirable.  Such missions require precise control of spacecraft motion to ensure objectives are met.  The development and testing of these guidance and control algorithms is thus critical to future space system operations.  This topic seeks to make an improvement over our current system by developing and producing omni-directional wheels for ground based robots for use in algorithmic development and testing.  

Design of fine resolution omni-directional wheels for space simulation robots
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen Phillips, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Due to the high cost of space systems, the ability to inspect, service, and repair/refuel these systems on-orbit is highly desirable.  Such missions require precise control of spacecraft motion to ensure objectives are met.  The development and testing of these guidance and control algorithms is thus critical to future space system operations.  This topic seeks to make an improvement over our current system by developing and producing omni-directional wheels for ground based robots for use in algorithmic development and testing.

Development of Microsecond Health Monitoring Technology
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jacob Dodson, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This program will conduct experiments and complimentary modeling with the goal of identifying operational damage mechanisms in structures that are subject to high strain rate loading conditions.

Microsecond damage detection methods may include active excitation (electromechanical impedance), passive model-based updating, or active cyber-physical model-experiment interactions.

Development of Virtual High Explosive Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: James D Davis, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Reactive flow models are utilized to predict through modeling and simulation the reactive behavior of energetic materials. Optimization techniques have been developed in order to provide the capability for parameterization of these reactive flow models based on a variety of experimental data. This project will focus on running these optimization techniques for reactive materials of interest to AFRL, a process which will require mining data from the literature and processing the data to a format required by the optimizer. Enhancements to the optimization package may be required in order to properly capture the experimental configuration and/or to add additional physics to the optimization procedures. Various codes are involved in these optimizations, including Python scripts for post-processing the numerical simulations, hydrocode input decks, and batch queue scripts.

Device Metrics and Benchmarking Analysis of Next-Generation Architectures for Space Computing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Gabriel Mounce, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Quantitatively analyze and determine optimal architectural characteristics for next-generation space processors using established device metrics and the AFRL sponsored CHREC space processing benchmarking framework.  Modern radiation-hardened space processors are several generations behind commercial architectures and commercial architectures are not optimized for space computing.  This project serves to assist RVSE with the analysis of current and future computing technology to better guide technology investment.

Device Metrics and Benchmarking Analysis of Next-Generation Architectures for Space Computing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Gabriel Mounce, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Quantitatively analyze and determine optimal architectural characteristics for next-generation space processors using established device metrics and the AFRL sponsored CHREC space processing benchmarking framework.  Modern radiation-hardened space processors are several generations behind commercial architectures and commercial architectures are not optimized for space computing.  This project serves to assist RVSE with the analysis of current and future computing technology to better guide technology investment.

Device Metrics and Benchmarking Analysis of Next-Generation Architectures for Space Computing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Gabriel Mounce, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Quantitatively analyze and determine optimal architectural characteristics for next-generation space processors using established device metrics and the AFRL sponsored CHREC space processing benchmarking framework.  Modern radiation-hardened space processors are several generations behind commercial architectures and commercial architectures are not optimized for space computing.  This project serves to assist RVSE with the analysis of current and future computing technology to better guide technology investment.

Directionally Coupled Aircraft Flight Control Synthesis and Analysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Benjamin Thomas Dickinson, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Classical flight control system (autopilot) methods involve developing linearized decoupled command tracking controllers various state such as vertical acceleration, lateral acceleration, or bank angle. In actuality, the rigid body dynamics of an aircraft are coupled and in cases where such coupling is significant, the decoupled approach to control can suffer severe degradation to the point of instability. This project will consider the development of flight control systems with coupled rigid body dynamics. During this project, the recipient of this project will be taught methods of autopilot design and apply the learned techniques to implement a dynamically coupled flight control system. The control system may be implemented in a full 6 DOF simulation, evaluated and compared against benchmark decoupled controllers.

Dynamic Plasma Coupling in Laboratory, Computer, Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: david lyttleton cooke, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We are developing a laboratory plasma device called EMPD (ExB drifting Magnetized Plasma Device.  EMPD is a 4' dia. by 6' long vacuum chamber with 0-200 Gauss axial magnetic field "bottle" for scaled plasma experiments.  We are currently developing plasma sources, experiments, and diagnostics to explore plasma-plasma coupling and Langmuir Probe physics in the positive bias flowing plasma regime which is still poorly explored, with relevance to applications as the Electro-dynamic Space Tether.

Dynamic Plasma Coupling in Laboratory, Computer, Space
Summer 2017
Mentor: david lyttleton cooke, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
We are developing a laboratory plasma device called EMPD (ExB drifting Magnetized Plasma Device.  EMPD is a 4' dia. by 6' long vacuum chamber with 0-200 Gauss axial magnetic field "bottle" for scaled plasma experiments.  We are currently developing plasma sources, experiments, and diagnostics to explore plasma-plasma coupling and Langmuir Probe physics in the positive bias flowing plasma regime which is still poorly explored, with relevance to applications as the Electro-dynamic Space Tether.

Effects of local strain on defect creation energies and on defect motion.
Summer 2017
Mentor: Arthur Henry Edwards, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
n nitride-based high-electron mobility transistors (or HEMTs), many defects segregate near the edge of the gate, where control voltages are applied, affecting device operation. We are interested in how strongly the formation energies of defects, which affect the electrical properties of these HEMT, formation energies s depend on local strain (deformations in the material). The student will study atomic models employing a state-of-the-art quantum mechanics code used for solid state physics modeling and state-of-the-art quantum mechanical techniques. The proposed study will look at defect formation energies and the activation energies for defect migration as a function of charge state under both hydrostatic and uniaxial stress.

Efficient, Scaleable Computation for Fluid-Thermal-Structural Interactions Analysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Daniel Archer Reasor, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
High speed vehicles experience high energy, combined loading from aerothermodynamics and structural response which drive complex fluid-thermal-structural interactions. These FTSI interactions introduce uncertainty in the loads and performance due to their path dependent nature. Analysis of these vehicles requires solution of the coupled fluid, thermal and structural equations at disparate time scales. Practical solution of these problems presents a need for efficient coupling techniques between fluid- and thermo-structural solvers, reduced order modeling techniques to reduce computation time and leveraging the capabilities of high performance computing resources. Possible contributions from this work could include a computational framework for coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structural dynamics (CSD) analysis codes, application of novel reduced order modeling methods or the use of hybrid computing architectures (GPGPU or Intel Xeon Phi accelerators) to provide faster, more accurate analysis at reduced computational cost.

Electrochemical Device Development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Thomas L Peng, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Looking to explore the world of basic research? Join an electrochemical device development effort at the AFRL. The candidate selected for this topic will be tasked with supporting AFRL efforts to design electrochemical systems that can be used to establish or remove custom metal thin films on demand. Research will focus on what can be done to improve the consistency at which metal films with specific properties can be electrodeposited, developing techniques to cleanly dissolve electrodeposited metal films, and investigate ways to eliminate undesired corrosive effects. A successful applicant will have completed at least one year of undergraduate level science, such as 1st year physics or 1st year chemistry, and be comfortable handling chemicals in a laboratory environment. Training on how to operate equipment such as an inert atmosphere glovebox, a variety of spectrometers, and tools for running chemical synthesis will be provided as needed. Day to day work will typically consist of reviewing scientific publications, planning new research, preparing novel electrolytes, assessing the effect of electrolyte additives, and considering how different voltages can be used to drive a variety of electrochemical reactions. It is anticipated that experiences gained in this internship can support future work in a variety of scientific fields such as battery development, corrosion inhibition, solvent design, broadcasting, thermal management, and optics.

Electrochemically Tunable Devices
Summer 2017
Mentor: Thomas L Peng, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Interested in developing electrochemically tunable devices? The applicant selected for this topic will be tasked with supporting AFRL efforts to design electrochemical systems that can be used to electrodeposit metal thin films with user defined properties on demand. Research will focus on what can be done to improve the consistency at which metal films with specific properties can be electrodeposited, developing techniques to cleanly dissolve electrodeposited metal films, and investigate ways to eliminate undesired corrosive effects. A successful applicant will be comfortable with handling chemicals in a laboratory environment, conducting electrochemical analysis, discussing research progress with colleagues, and working in a multidisciplinary environment. The extent to which the selected applicant will be trained, guided, and supported to define their own research approach will be determined based on the selected candidate’s education, background, and interest. Day to day work will typically consist of reviewing scientific publications, planning new research, preparing novel electrolytes, assessing the effect of electrolyte additives, and considering how different voltages can be used to drive a variety of electrochemical reactions. It is anticipated that experiences gained in this internship can support future work in a variety of scientific fields such as battery development, corrosion inhibition, solvent design, broadcasting, thermal management, and optics.

Electromagnetic Disruption of Electronic Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Daniel Stephen Guillette, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is interested in furthering its understanding on how intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) disrupts the operation of electronic devices. This research topic aims to explore and determine the response(s) of pre-selected electronic devices to IEMI. Selected scholars will execute, and document laboratory experiments where selected electronics devices are exposed to IEMI. Each experiment’s primary directive is to determine the test parameters which cause no effect, compromised operation, and/or physical damage to manifest and then attempt to tie that phenomenon to physical, circuit, and/or software mechanisms. Selected scholars will be exposed to the many facets and challenges of understanding modern electronic architecture IEMI susceptibility. Scholars will be aided in these pursuits through the use of state-of-the-art electromagnetics modeling and circuit response software such as Microwave Studio, and ADS. Ideal candidates should be familiar with manipulating data-sets in Excel and MATLAB as well as a strong curiosity in poking the bear (electronic device) to see what happens…

Electromagnetic Disruption of Electronic Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Daniel Stephen Guillette, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is interested in furthering its understanding on how intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) disrupts the operation of electronic devices. This research topic aims to explore and determine the response(s) of pre-selected electronic devices to IEMI. Selected scholars will execute, and document laboratory experiments where selected electronics devices are exposed to IEMI. Each experiment’s primary directive is to determine the test parameters which cause no effect, compromised operation, and/or physical damage to manifest and then attempt to tie that phenomenon to physical, circuit, and/or software mechanisms. Selected scholars will be exposed to the many facets and challenges of understanding modern electronic architecture IEMI susceptibility. Scholars will be aided in these pursuits through the use of state-of-the-art electromagnetics modeling and circuit response software such as Microwave Studio, and ADS. Ideal candidates should be familiar with manipulating data-sets in Excel and MATLAB as well as a strong curiosity in poking the bear (electronic device) to see what happens…

Electromagnetic Disruption of Electronic Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Daniel Stephen Guillette, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is interested in furthering its understanding on how intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) disrupts the operation of electronic devices. This research topic aims to explore and determine the response(s) of pre-selected electronic devices to IEMI. Selected scholars will execute, and document laboratory experiments where selected electronics devices are exposed to IEMI. Each experiment’s primary directive is to determine the test parameters which cause no effect, compromised operation, and/or physical damage to manifest and then attempt to tie that phenomenon to physical, circuit, and/or software mechanisms. Selected scholars will be exposed to the many facets and challenges of understanding modern electronic architecture IEMI susceptibility. Scholars will be aided in these pursuits through the use of state-of-the-art electromagnetics modeling and circuit response software such as Microwave Studio, and ADS. Ideal candidates should be familiar with manipulating data-sets in Excel and MATLAB as well as a strong curiosity in poking the bear (electronic device) to see what happens…

Energy levels of defects in semiconductors
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Carballo Pineda, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project focuses on the application of classical electrostatics to the understanding of the electrical properties of radiation-induced defects in materials used in space electronics. One of the key challenges in modeling the properties of these defects is the problem of accurately computing the large contribution to the total energy of an isolated defect arising from the classical polarization that this defect induces in the bulk region surrounding a small polygonal shaped region that has been modeled using quantum mechanics and periodic boundary conditions.  The current model, due to Jost, replaces the volume of the region with that of a sphere of equal or nearly equal volume. This model works well for nearly cubic regions, but is difficult to apply for the more oddly shaped volumes that frequently arise when studying materials with non-cubic symmetry. The goal of this project is to extend this model to these systems. This allows the quantum mechanical computations to be performed on smaller systems saving time and money.

Energy levels of defects in semiconductors
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Carballo Pineda, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project focuses on the application of classical electrostatics to the understanding of the electrical properties of radiation-induced defects in materials used in space electronics. One of the key challenges in modeling the properties of these defects is the problem of accurately computing the large contribution to the total energy of an isolated defect arising from the classical polarization that this defect induces in the bulk region surrounding a small polygonal shaped region that has been modeled using quantum mechanics and periodic boundary conditions.  The current model, due to Jost, replaces the volume of the region with that of a sphere of equal or nearly equal volume. This model works well for nearly cubic regions, but is difficult to apply for the more oddly shaped volumes that frequently arise when studying materials with non-cubic symmetry. The goal of this project is to extend this model to these systems. This allows the quantum mechanical computations to be performed on smaller systems saving time and money.

Excitation and attenuation of regional seismic waves from shallow earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jiakang Xie, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Underground nuclear explosions and shallow earthquakes both generate seismic waves. Our researches include the understanding of the amount and type of seismic energy radiation by nuclear explosions, shallow earthquakes and industrial explosions. The effects of propagation and attenuation through the solid Earth is also of great interest because they control the travel times and amplitudes of seismic waves. Research on these topics enhance the ability to detect, locate, and identify the event’s source type, and to estimate the yield if it is an explosion. We conduct both theoretical modeling and practical measurements of source radiation, travel times and amplitude of seismic waves. Ultimately, better models of both source processes and the elastic/inelastic Earth structures will be developed. We are particularly interested in small to moderate (M <6) shallow seismic sources recorded at local (< 200 km) to regional (<3000 km) distances.

Experimental Structure and Reactivity of Ionic Liquids
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher J Annesley, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Our laboratory is studying fundamental chemistry relating to space vehicles; we are particularly interested in  ionic liquids, which show promise as inherently space compatible liquids because of their low vapor pressure.  By using a novel electrospray ion trap mass spectrometer coupled with lasers, we can do two types of gas-phase experiments. The first is to do infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy of ions at temperatures ranging from 20 Kelvin to room temperature. This low temperature, as well as the spectroscopic range, will allow us to determine the molecular structure of a larger variety of ionic liquids than previous experiments have been able to study. An accurate structure explains why bulk properties, such as the viscosity, vary significantly with small changes in structure. The second direction within the project is to study the first steps in reactions of ionic liquids. One reaction of interest is the reaction of ionic liquids and nitric acid as they undergo a hypergolic reaction, meaning that they spontaneously ignite upon mixing. We want to determine the steps that take place before combustion using our temperature- and mass-controlled ion trap, which acts as a mini-reactor. This allows us to study an isolated reaction that undergoes few collisions to  remove bulk effects that have made it difficult to study these reactions in the past. By understanding the first steps of reaction, we can provide the information necessary to tailor ionic liquids to specific end goals. This project will provide the opportunity to understand, at the molecular level, species that were previously only studied in the bulk, and it will provide details about these ionic liquid systems that were not understood before.

GEO Neighborhood Watch - Round 2
Summer 2017
Mentor: Waid Thomas Schlaegel, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
In the first round of this study, our scholars showed the benefits of using a 16” telescope for watching geo-synchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) assets to detect passing space objects. They also demonstrated the problems caused by light pollution. In the previous project, scholars developed skills to address pointing issues with our azimuth-elevation mount to improve our ability to quickly point the telescope at the selected targets and then collected imagery all night to detect and identify passing objects. In the current project we wish to continue building on the successes from last summer by surveying locales where light pollution will be a much less problem. The goal of this project will be to gather imagery over the course of several nights to demonstrate the ability to use a small telescope to observe and detect close approaches of small and/or dim objects to GEO assets. As in the previous project, the scholar(s) will be required to survey the available GEO satellites and determine a representative target, or targets, to observe, develop an observation plan, and execute the plan. The scholar will also compile the collected data and perform analyses of the data and generate a report of the results of the observations based on the analyses.

GEO Neighborhood Watch - Round 2
Summer 2017
Mentor: Waid Thomas Schlaegel, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
In the first round of this study, our scholars showed the benefits of using a 16” telescope for watching geo-synchronous equatorial orbit (GEO) assets to detect passing space objects. They also demonstrated the problems caused by light pollution. In the previous project, scholars developed skills to address pointing issues with our azimuth-elevation mount to improve our ability to quickly point the telescope at the selected targets and then collected imagery all night to detect and identify passing objects. In the current project we wish to continue building on the successes from last summer by surveying locales where light pollution will be a much less problem. The goal of this project will be to gather imagery over the course of several nights to demonstrate the ability to use a small telescope to observe and detect close approaches of small and/or dim objects to GEO assets. As in the previous project, the scholar(s) will be required to survey the available GEO satellites and determine a representative target, or targets, to observe, develop an observation plan, and execute the plan. The scholar will also compile the collected data and perform analyses of the data and generate a report of the results of the observations based on the analyses.

Gigawatt-class High Power Microwave Source Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Peter Mardahl, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We will assemble a team of DE Scholars and AFRL scientists to model/simulate cutting edge gigawatt-class high power microwave (HPM) source technologies.  We will utilize the DoD's massively parallel supercomputing capabilities to perform high fidelity simulations using the AFRL's Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code (ICEPIC).  We will be virtually prototyping and improving the world's most advanced HPM sources, leveraging the latest published results to produce virtual prototypes that represent the best of the world's HPM sources.  Team members will work closely with each other and their mentors to learn the basic and advanced features of ICEPIC to create and run successful HPM models in a high performance computing environment.

Gigawatt-class High Power Microwave Source Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Wilkin Tang, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We will assemble a team of DE Scholars and AFRL scientists to model/simulate  cutting edge gigawatt-class high power microwave (HPM) source technologies.  We will utilize the DoD's massively parallel supercomputing capabilities to 
perform high fidelity simulations using the AFRL's Improved Concurrent  Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code (ICEPIC).  We will be virtually prototyping and improving the world's most advanced HPM sources, leveraging  the latest published results to produce virtual prototypes that represent the  best of the world's HPM sources.  Team members will work closely with each  other and their mentors to learn the basic and advanced features of ICEPIC to create and run successful HPM models in a high performance computing environment.

Gigawatt-class High Power Microwave Source Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jason Hammond, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We will assemble a team of DE Scholars and AFRL scientists to model/simulate cutting edge gigawatt-class high power microwave (HPM) source technologies.  We will utilize the DoD's massively parallel supercomputing capabilities to perform high fidelity simulations using the AFRL's Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code (ICEPIC).  We will be virtually prototyping and improving the world's most advanced HPM sources, leveraging the latest published results to produce virtual prototypes that represent the best of the world's HPM sources.  Team members will work closely with each other and their mentors to learn the basic and advanced features of ICEPIC to create and run successful HPM models in a high performance computing environment.

Gigawatt-class High Power Microwave Source Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jason Hammond, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
We will assemble a team of DE Scholars and AFRL scientists to model/simulate cutting edge gigawatt-class high power microwave (HPM) source technologies.  We will utilize the DoD's massively parallel supercomputing capabilities to perform high fidelity simulations using the AFRL's Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code (ICEPIC).  We will be virtually prototyping and improving the world's most advanced HPM sources, leveraging the latest published results to produce virtual prototypes that represent the best of the world's HPM sources.  Team members will work closely with each other and their mentors to learn the basic and advanced features of ICEPIC to create and run successful HPM models in a high performance computing environment.

Gigawatt-class High Power Microwave Source Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Joseph Leach, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We will assemble a team of DE Scholars and AFRL scientists to model/simulate cutting edge gigawatt-class high power microwave (HPM) source technologies. We will utilize the DoD's massively parallel supercomputing capabilities to perform high fidelity simulations using the AFRL's Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code (ICEPIC). We will be virtually prototyping and improving the world's most advanced HPM sources, leveraging the latest published results to produce virtual prototypes that represent the best of the world's HPM sources.  Team members will work closely with each other and their mentors to learn the basic and advanced features of ICEPIC to create and run successful HPM models in a high performance computing environment.

Gigawatt-Class High Power Microwave Source Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Timothy Fleming, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We will assemble a team of DE Scholars and AFRL scientists to model/simulate cutting edge gigawatt-class high power microwave (HPM) source technologies. We will utilize the DoD's massively parallel supercomputing capabilities to 
perform high fidelity simulations using the AFRL's Improved Concurrent Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code (ICEPIC).  We will be virtually prototyping and improving the world's most advanced HPM sources, leveraging the latest published results to produce virtual prototypes that represent the 
best of the world's HPM sources.  Team members will work closely with each other and their mentors to learn the basic and advanced features of ICEPIC to create and run successful HPM models in a high performance computing 
environment.

Guidance, Navigation, and Control Involving Relative Satellite Motion
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The goal of this topic is to better understand and utilize the dynamics of relative satellite motion (i.e., the motion of one satellite with respect to one or more other satellites).  This topic encompasses both close-proximity scenarios (i.e. cluster/formation missions and rendezvous/proximity operations missions) and scenarios where the satellites are not necessarily on closely neighboring orbits.  An example of the latter scenario is space-based tracking and orbit determination of space objects.  Areas of relevant research include:   Modeling of Relative Orbit Dynamics: The relative motion between two or more satellites can be modeled in unique ways.  The governing equations for such motion can account for a variety of physical phenomena and, as such, maybe either linear or nonlinear, time-varying or time-invariant.  Of particular interest is the formulation of governing equations that incorporate particular phenomena, closed-form solutions to new or existing equations, and characterizing relative dynamics in non-Cartesian (e.g. orbit element) fashion.   Relative Navigation for Satellite Systems: Relative navigation entails accurate estimation of the relative state (position and velocity) of one satellite with respect to another, given available measurements.  These may include GPS, intersatellite ranging, line-of-sight, and light curve data.  Again, this research area encompasses a wide range of orbital regimes, including both close-proximity and larger separation scenarios.  Of particular interest is improved filter design, enhanced on-board autonomy (i.e. minimum interaction from the ground), and angles-only observability (i.e. when only line-of-sight is available).   Guidance/Control Algorithms for Relative Satellite Motion: Satellites flying in close proximity have unique control requirements. The versatility of satellite cluster missions allows for reconfiguration of the satellites to perform different missions or to account for the addition or deletion of members to the cluster. Of particular interest is the development of open- and/or closed-loop control algorithms for relative satellite trajectories and optimization of these trajectories. The former area may involve both centralized and decentralized control, as well as hierarchical control; while the latter area may involve both conventional (e.g. LQR, gradient-based) and modern (e.g. genetic algorithm) optimization schemes.  In addition to close-proximity maneuvering, it is also desired to utilize relative motion-based techniques for maneuver planning of a single satellite, whether based on conventional methods (e.g., Lambert transfer) or lesser known methods (e.g., hodograph theory).

Guidance, Navigation, and Control Involving Relative Satellite Motion
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The goal of this topic is to better understand and utilize the dynamics of relative satellite motion (i.e., the motion of one satellite with respect to one or more other satellites).  This topic encompasses both close-proximity scenarios (i.e. cluster/formation missions and rendezvous/proximity operations missions) and scenarios where the satellites are not necessarily on closely neighboring orbits.  An example of the latter scenario is space-based tracking and orbit determination of space objects.  Areas of relevant research include:   Modeling of Relative Orbit Dynamics: The relative motion between two or more satellites can be modeled in unique ways.  The governing equations for such motion can account for a variety of physical phenomena and, as such, maybe either linear or nonlinear, time-varying or time-invariant.  Of particular interest is the formulation of governing equations that incorporate particular phenomena, closed-form solutions to new or existing equations, and characterizing relative dynamics in non-Cartesian (e.g. orbit element) fashion.   Relative Navigation for Satellite Systems: Relative navigation entails accurate estimation of the relative state (position and velocity) of one satellite with respect to another, given available measurements.  These may include GPS, intersatellite ranging, line-of-sight, and light curve data.  Again, this research area encompasses a wide range of orbital regimes, including both close-proximity and larger separation scenarios.  Of particular interest is improved filter design, enhanced on-board autonomy (i.e. minimum interaction from the ground), and angles-only observability (i.e. when only line-of-sight is available).   Guidance/Control Algorithms for Relative Satellite Motion: Satellites flying in close proximity have unique control requirements. The versatility of satellite cluster missions allows for reconfiguration of the satellites to perform different missions or to account for the addition or deletion of members to the cluster. Of particular interest is the development of open- and/or closed-loop control algorithms for relative satellite trajectories and optimization of these trajectories. The former area may involve both centralized and decentralized control, as well as hierarchical control; while the latter area may involve both conventional (e.g. LQR, gradient-based) and modern (e.g. genetic algorithm) optimization schemes.  In addition to close-proximity maneuvering, it is also desired to utilize relative motion-based techniques for maneuver planning of a single satellite, whether based on conventional methods (e.g., Lambert transfer) or lesser known methods (e.g., hodograph theory).  

Hardware Testbed for Radio Frequency Navigation Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) information is crucial to almost every modern system.  Many systems currently use the Global Positioning System to provide the desired knowledge but there are cases, such as indoors, where GPS is unavailable.  In many of the cases where GPS is unavailable other forms of RF are available.  This topic seeks to investigate non-GPS navigation techniques and methods that leverage existing RF communications links and sophisticated estimation algorithms.

Students will work in the lab to set up radios as two-way RF communication links that can be used as a testbed for navigation algorithms. Tasks may include configuring radio hardware and/or firmware, developing protocols for packet transmission and reception, automating data logging processes, performing tests, and evaluating results.

Hardware Testbed for Radio Frequency Navigation Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Position, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) information is crucial to almost every modern system.  Many systems currently use the Global Positioning System to provide the desired knowledge but there are cases, such as indoors, where GPS is unavailable.  In many of the cases where GPS is unavailable other forms of RF are available.  This topic seeks to investigate non-GPS navigation techniques and methods that leverage existing RF communications links and sophisticated estimation algorithms.

Students will work in the lab to set up radios as two-way RF communication links that can be used as a testbed for navigation algorithms. Tasks may include configuring radio hardware and/or firmware, developing protocols for packet transmission and reception, automating data logging processes, performing tests, and evaluating results.

Heterogeneous Teaming for Target Search and Tracking
Summer 2017
Mentor: Emily Doucette, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The utilization of autonomous agents can support mission success in dynamic, uncertain, and contested environments by augmenting human operator capabilities.  Specifically, cooperative autonomous systems can provide enhanced situational awareness, which can inform decision support for target engagement scenarios.  To leverage the full capabilities of autonomous agents in a dynamic and uncertain battlefields, a common framework to update situational awareness between all agents, both human and autonomous, is required.  This need for enhanced situational awareness across a heterogeneous team of agents is also challenged by dynamic communication topologies in decentralized command and control architectures.  To support this work, students shall address this challenge by conducting research in the areas of nonlinear estimation, vision-aided navigation, cooperative networked systems, and risk-aware human decision aids.  A student that supports this work shall have interest in advancing the aforementioned fields both theoretically and in hardware demonstration.

High Power Electromagnetic Interactions in Plasmas and High Temperature Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brad Hoff, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Ph.D.
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Directed Energy Directorate is interested in the development of laboratory-scale experiments and associated diagnostics for the purposes of validating analytical and computational plasma chemistry models related to HPM-driven plasmas.  An additional area of interest involves modeling and experimental study of interactions between high temperature materials and high power millimeter wave beams as related to beamed energy propulsion and power beaming applications.

High Power Electromagnetic Interactions in Plasmas and High Temperature Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brad Hoff, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Directed Energy Directorate is interested in the development of laboratory-scale experiments and associated diagnostics for the purposes of validating analytical and computational plasma chemistry models related to HPM-driven plasmas.  An additional area of interest involves modeling and experimental study of interactions between high temperature materials and high power millimeter wave beams as related to beamed energy propulsion and power beaming applications.

High-Power Fiber Laser/Amplifier Modeling & Simulation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jacob Robert Grosek, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will be on modeling high-power fiber lasers/amplifiers.  Specifically, the goal is to develop techniques for overcoming nonlinear and thermal effects that inhibit scaling to higher output powers while maintaining good beam quality, and usually narrow linewidth.  One method for achieving this goal is through novel fiber designs, which may suppress deleterious processes that occur at high powers in the fibers, but are also complex and challenging to model on a computer.  Through this modeling effort various fiber laser/amplifier configurations will be explored in order to optimize the output.

High Power Microwave Amplifiers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brad Hoff, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Ph.D.
High power microwave amplifiers are an integral part of high power radar systems, such as those used to track space debris, as well as other types of directed energy systems.  This project involves theoretical, experimental, and computational efforts directed toward the development of high power microwave amplifiers.

High speed aero-optics laboratory
Summer 2017
Mentor: Donald Joseph Wittich, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Lasers projected from an aircraft need to stay focused as they pass through the air that has been disturbed by that same aircraft.  Conversely, light which is being received by the aircraft, e.g. for imaging systems, also needs to be focused after it has passed through the same flow field.  In some cases, the turbulent air disturbances are severe enough to severely distort the light, preventing it from properly focusing.  The study of these interactions has been described as "aero-optics".  AFRL is interested in understanding and minimizing aero-optic distortions for a variety of applications.  Opportunities for summer aero-optic research at AFRL include experimental studies of turbulence such as turbulent boundary layers and shear layers as well as the development of appropriate diagnostic instrumentation (e.g. schlieren, wavefront sensing, laser induced fluorescence, pressure sensitive paint, etc.).   Computational (CFD) opportunities also exists to design aero-optic experiments and to develop accurate aero-optic CFD solutions.

High Speed Fluid Structural Interactions and Reduced-Order Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Crystal Pasiliao, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This research seeks to develop a multi-fidelity, multi-physics simulation framework in a computationally efficient manner and with a sufficient fidelity for the modeling of realistic high speed munitions systems in terminal phase trajectories. The objective of the proposed summer research program is to examine the use of CFD/CSD surrogates for the rapid prediction of aerothermodynamic loads of high speed weapons within aerothermoelastic analysis frameworks. The overarching motivation of this research is the advancement of our basic understanding into fluid-thermal-structural-interactions (FTSI) of high speed munitions on terminal flight trajectories so as to enable the design of responsive and precise high-speed weapon systems. To reduce the computational cost of simulation, we proposed the formulation of three reduced order models (ROMs) to capture the structural dynamics, thermodynamics, and thermo-structural coupling effects that a high speed munition will experience. The use of ROMs allow for the estimation of complex system behaviors for orders of magnitude less computational cost compared to full order CFD or FEM analyses. The aerothermodynamic loads (i.e., surface pressure, heat flux) are modeled using steady state, isothermal CFD flow solutions combined with analytical corrections for surface vibration and temperature gradients. The analytical correction for surface vibrations is derived from a theoretical quasi-steady flow model, while the correction for surface temperature gradients is developed from compressible boundary layer theory. The development of an efficient response surface for the steady state, isothermal flow solutions will be pursued using techniques such as Kriging or Proper Orthogonal Decomposition. We seek to represent the thermal and structural states of a representative munition configuration in modal space using the ROM methods of Rayleigh-Ritz modes, proper orthogonal decomposition, and Kriging.

Hybrid & Cyber-Physical Modeling, Estimation, and Control for Spacecraft Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Richard Scott Erwin, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Hybrid Systems Theory and Cyber-Physical Systems are areas of current research activity within the systems & controls community.  These topics are directly relevant to the control of current and future Air Force Space systems, which have a number of aspects to them that are well-modeled in a hybrid/cyber-physical setting, including the integrated, coupled behavior of a system involving continuous (analog) physical dynamics, discrete-time (digital) control systems, and finite-state machine mode-logic systems; and discrete, state-triggered transitions of mission or system elements (e.g., range dependent mission constraints or range-limited sensors).  This research project will investigate the development and application of new techniques for the analysis and control of hybrid or cyber-physical systems to spacecraft control problems, including orbital control (guidance), attitude control, and coupled orbital-attitude control problems.
References:
1.	Johnson, T. T., Green, J., Mitra, S., Dudley, R., and Erwin, R. S., “Satellite Rendezvous and Conjunction Avoidance: Case Studies in Verification of Nonlinear Hybrid Systems,” Proc. 18th International Symposium on Formal Methods, pp. 252-266, Paris, France, August 2012.

2.	Goebel, Rafal, Ricardo G. Sanfelice, and Andrew Teel. "Hybrid dynamical systems." Control Systems, IEEE 29, no. 2 (2009): 28-93.

3.	Tabuada, Paulo. Verification and control of hybrid systems: a symbolic approach. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009.

4.	Tarraf, Danielle C., Alexandre Megretski, and Munther Dahleh. "Finite approximations of switched homogeneous systems for controller synthesis." Automatic Control, IEEE Transactions on 56, no. 5 (2011): 1140-1145.

Imaging Payload Sensor Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Reed Alan Weber, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project involves modeling advanced imaging payload sensors for the purposes of analysis and simulation. Students on this project will incorporate AFRL calculations of background scene imagery into diverse imaging payload concepts using a MATLAB based sensor modeling toolkit. The modeling processes themselves, along with resultant simulated imagery, will be assessed for suitability toward observing multiple target types. The goal of this project will be to compare results for at least two imaging payload concepts and provide both documentation and interpretation of the results in a technical presentation.

Improved accuracy for spacecraft relative-motion dynamics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew James Sinclair, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
For missions involving spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations, understanding of the relative-motion dynamics are critical for any guidance, navigation, and control application. Traditional efforts at developing higher-fidelity dynamic models have focused on developing higher-order dynamics or including additional perturbations in the orbital dynamics. However, these approaches can lead to complicated models that are difficult to incorporate in guidance, navigation, and control algorithms. Instead of developing more complicated models, this topic is focused on extracting greater fidelity from simple models.  Possible approaches include a two-step linearization and taking advantage of coordinate transformations with lower nonlinearity.

Improved accuracy for spacecraft relative-motion dynamics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew James Sinclair, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
For missions involving spacecraft rendezvous and proximity operations, understanding of the relative-motion dynamics are critical for any guidance, navigation, and control application. Traditional efforts at developing higher-fidelity dynamic models have focused on developing higher-order dynamics or including additional perturbations in the orbital dynamics. However, these approaches can lead to complicated models that are difficult to incorporate in guidance, navigation, and control algorithms. Instead of developing more complicated models, this topic is focused on extracting greater fidelity from simple models.  Possible approaches include a two-step linearization and taking advantage of coordinate transformations with lower nonlinearity.

Intelligent Robotic Assembly of Spacecraft
Summer 2017
Mentor: Oscar Martinez, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Advanced manufacturing techniques are taking an increasing role throughout industry.  Intelligent robotic assembly of products has the potential to have a massive impact on the future of how things are built, particularly resulting in a sizeable increase of both productivity and quality.  Accomplishing this assembly requires a multifaceted approach to robotics that entails a talented coordination of machine learning, machine vision, image processing, forward/inverse kinematics, and end effector manipulation, among a multitude of other supporting tools.

This project uses a Baxter Robot from Rethink Robotics, Inc.  Baxter has two functional arms and a variety of sensors with analog/digital IO capability, including accelerometers, IR range, sonar, and cameras.  Python, C++, Robot Operating System (ROS), MATLAB and other such programming languages are the primary means of manipulating Baxter.  This project will explore the robotics topics (listed in the above paragraph) from current literature and the open source community and use them to program Baxter towards assembly of a simple satellite analog as a demonstration of intelligent robotic assembly.

Investigating Multi-functional Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nydeia Bolden, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Hybrid and multifunctional materials are of interest to AFRL - Munitions Directorate. The goal of this project is to investigate alternate materials that provide structural and enhanced blast properties.

Investigating Optical Nonlinearities in High Power Microstructured Fiber Amplifiers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ben Pulford, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Fiber lasers have a number of advantages over conventional solid states lasers including diffraction limited beam quality, excellent thermal management properties, and high optical to optical conversion efficiencies. Unfortunately, the maximum output power achievable from an individual fiber laser is severely limited by intensity dependent nonlinear effects and detrimental thermal effects encountered in the laser gain media; most commonly: stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and modal instabilities (MI). To overcome these effects we are exploring novel microstructured fiber designs that mitigate optical nonlinearities and thermal impediments, enabling further amplifier power scaling. As part of our research team the student will develop diagnostic tools to quantify nonlinear and thermal effects in optical fiber, utilize this information to create novel microstructured fiber designs, and participate in fiber amplifier power scaling experiments. Over the course of the summer the student will: 1. learn the physical principles of optical waveguides and laser amplification, 2. develop a foundational understanding of nonlinear effects present in high power fiber amplifiers, 3. gain experience with software suites including Mathematica, MATLAB, LabVIEW, and (potentially) COMSOL, and 4. participate in the development of diagnostic tools to characterize nonlinear and thermal effects in optical fibers.

Investigating Optical Nonlinearities in High Power Microstructured Fiber Amplifiers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ben Pulford, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Fiber lasers have a number of advantages over conventional solid states lasers including diffraction limited beam quality, excellent thermal management properties, and high optical to optical conversion efficiencies. Unfortunately, the maximum output power achievable from an individual fiber laser is severely limited by intensity dependent nonlinear effects and detrimental thermal effects encountered in the laser gain media; most commonly: stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and modal instabilities (MI). To overcome these effects we are exploring novel microstructured fiber designs that mitigate optical nonlinearities and thermal impediments, enabling further amplifier power scaling. As part of our research team the student will develop diagnostic tools to quantify nonlinear and thermal effects in optical fiber, utilize this information to create novel microstructured fiber designs, and participate in fiber amplifier power scaling experiments. Over the course of the summer the student will: 1. learn the physical principles of optical waveguides and laser amplification, 2. develop a foundational understanding of nonlinear effects present in high power fiber amplifiers, 3. gain experience with software suites including Mathematica, MATLAB, LabVIEW, and (potentially) COMSOL, and 4. participate in the development of diagnostic tools to characterize nonlinear and thermal effects in optical fibers.

Ionic Liquid Tailoring for Thin Conductive Film Electrolysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Lok-kun Tsui, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Novel room temperature ionic liquids will be synthesized, isolated, and purified in order to be used as supporting electrolyte and solvent couples in electrochemical reactions.  New ionic liquids will be tested for their emissivity, volatility, viscosity, and ability to solvate simple and complex ions.  Scholars will also be exploring surface modifications of conductive thin films via self-assembly of various functional groups, in addition to other Air Force-directed chemistry needs.

Ionic Liquid Tailoring for Thin Conductive Film Electrolysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Lok-kun Tsui, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Novel room temperature ionic liquids will be synthesized, isolated, and purified in order to be used as supporting electrolyte and solvent couples in electrochemical reactions.  New ionic liquids will be tested for their emissivity, volatility, viscosity, and ability to solvate simple and complex ions.  Scholars will also be exploring surface modifications of conductive thin films via self-assembly of various functional groups, in addition to other Air Force-directed chemistry needs.

Ionic Liquid Tailoring for Thin Conductive Film Electrolysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Lok-kun Tsui, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Novel room temperature ionic liquids will be synthesized, isolated, and purified in order to be used as supporting electrolyte and solvent couples in electrochemical reactions.  New ionic liquids will be tested for their emissivity, volatility, viscosity, and ability to solvate simple and complex ions.  Scholars will also be exploring surface modifications of conductive thin films via self-assembly of various functional groups, in addition to other Air Force-directed chemistry needs.

IR Detector Noise Characterization
Summer 2017
Mentor: Eli Garduno, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The goal of this research will be to optimize a photodetector noise measurement setup and use it to characterize the noise of different infrared (IR) photodetectors.  The system optimization will include isolating the detector noise from noise introduced by the test equipment, in part by using simple analytical modeling of each noise source.  The current measurement setup consists of a Cryogenic Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) that biases the detector, converts the high detector impedance to low output impedance of an amplifier, and amplifies the detector signal.  Potential noise sources include shot noise due to temporal non-uniformity in the arrival of photons and the movement of photogenerated carriers across a depletion region, Johnson noise in both the detector and the feedback resistor of the amplifier which is due to random thermal fluctuation, Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) current and voltage noise, and 1/f noise from the Field Effect Transistor (FET), as part of the TIA, as well as potentially in the detector response itself.  The optimization will also include comparing the individual detector noise measurements with noise spectrum generated from a focal plane array fabricated from an identical wafer material.
	Currently, noise spectra are collected for developed and emerging IR detectors to provide insight into their potential performance in focal plane arrays (FPAs).  Without further identification of the sources of the noise at different frequencies, however, the individual detector noise spectra cannot be used to predict the performance of an FPA fabricated with the same material and process.  The summer scholar would model noise spectra, become familiar with and provide insight into the design of the amplifier stages used in measuring the detector signal, and characterize a variety of state-of-the-art IR detectors from both Academic and Industry partners.

IR Detector Noise Characterization
Summer 2017
Mentor: Eli Garduno, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The goal of this research will be to optimize a photodetector noise measurement setup and use it to characterize the noise of different infrared (IR) photodetectors. The system optimization will include isolating the detector noise from noise introduced by the test equipment, in part by using simple analytical modeling of each noise source. The current measurement setup consists of a Cryogenic Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) that biases the detector, converts the high detector impedance to low output impedance of an amplifier, and amplifies the detector signal. Potential noise sources include shot noise due to temporal non-uniformity in the arrival of photons and the movement of photogenerated carriers across a depletion region, Johnson noise in both the detector and the feedback resistor of the amplifier which is due to random thermal fluctuation, Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) current and voltage noise, and 1/f noise from the Field Effect Transistor (FET), as part of the TIA, as well as potentially in the detector response itself. The optimization will also include comparing the individual detector noise measurements with noise spectrum generated from a focal plane array fabricated from an identical wafer material. Currently, noise spectra are collected for developed and emerging IR detectors to provide insight into their potential performance in focal plane arrays (FPAs). Without further identification of the sources of the noise at different frequencies, however, the individual detector noise spectra cannot be used to predict the performance of an FPA fabricated with the same material and process. The summer scholar would model noise spectra, become familiar with and provide insight into the design of the amplifier stages used in measuring the detector signal, and characterize a variety of state-of-the-art IR detectors from both Academic and Industry partners.

IR Detector Noise Characterization
Summer 2017
Mentor: Eli Garduno, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The goal of this research will be to optimize a photodetector noise measurement setup and use it to characterize the noise of different infrared (IR) photodetectors. The system optimization will include isolating the detector noise from noise introduced by the test equipment, in part by using simple analytical modeling of each noise source. The current measurement setup consists of a Cryogenic Transimpedance Amplifier (TIA) that biases the detector, converts the high detector impedance to low output impedance of an amplifier, and amplifies the detector signal. Potential noise sources include shot noise due to temporal non-uniformity in the arrival of photons and the movement of photogenerated carriers across a depletion region, Johnson noise in both the detector and the feedback resistor of the amplifier which is due to random thermal fluctuation, Operational Amplifier (OpAmp) current and voltage noise, and 1/f noise from the Field Effect Transistor (FET), as part of the TIA, as well as potentially in the detector response itself. The optimization will also include comparing the individual detector noise measurements with noise spectrum generated from a focal plane array fabricated from an identical wafer material. Currently, noise spectra are collected for developed and emerging IR detectors to provide insight into their potential performance in focal plane arrays (FPAs). Without further identification of the sources of the noise at different frequencies, however, the individual detector noise spectra cannot be used to predict the performance of an FPA fabricated with the same material and process. The summer scholar would model noise spectra, become familiar with and provide insight into the design of the amplifier stages used in measuring the detector signal, and characterize a variety of state-of-the-art IR detectors from both Academic and Industry partners.

Laboratory/Range Diagnostics
Summer 2017
Mentor: John Paul Sena, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The Laser Integration and Demonstration Program within the Air Force Research Laboratory's Application Branch is tasked for taking matured technologies from other programs and proving them out in the field. To prove the technology, diagnostics need to be designed and implemented to test each performance measure of the system. These high fidelity measurements are critical for the system's maturation to continue on to the war fighter. The Phillips Scholar would pursue understanding what measurements need to be made for proving the system, designing the diagnostics for gathering the data and reducing the data for the research team to complete the report.

Laboratory/Range Diagnostics
Summer 2017
Mentor: John Paul Sena, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The Laser Integration and Demonstration Program within the Air Force Research Laboratory's Application Branch is tasked for taking matured technologies from other programs and proving them out in the field. To prove the technology, diagnostics need to be designed and implemented to test each performance measure of the system. These high fidelity measurements are critical for the system's maturation to continue on to the war fighter. The Phillips Scholar would pursue understanding what measurements need to be made for proving the system, designing the diagnostics for gathering the data and reducing the data for the research team to complete the report.

LADAR Electronics and Signal Processing Research, Experimentation, and Evaluation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jarrod Paul Brown, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Contribute to research, experimentation, and evaluation of signal processing algorithm development for in-house Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) system. Develop signal processing algorithms in MATLAB to operate on GPU by utilizing CUDA functions in MATLAB Signal Processing Toolbox to shift workload/workspace from CPU to GPU on NVIDIA Quadro graphics card. Experiment and evaluate  performance of signal processing algorithms using CPU and GPU and present results to the Seeker team. Evaluation criteria should include computation time required, throughput, hardware requirements, tradeoffs, etc. Develop image processing algorithms to perform target detection and tracking of LADAR 3D point-cloud. Collect data using in-house LADAR system, evaluate algorithm performance, and identify potential areas for improvement.  Contribute to research, experimentation, and evaluation of signal processing algorithm development for in-house Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) system. Develop signal processing algorithms in MATLAB to operate on GPU by utilizing CUDA functions in MATLAB Signal Processing Toolbox to shift workload/workspace from CPU to GPU on NVIDIA Quadro graphics card. Experiment and evaluate  performance of signal processing algorithms using CPU and GPU and present results to the Seeker team. Evaluation criteria should include computation time required, throughput, hardware requirements, tradeoffs, etc. Develop image processing algorithms to perform target detection and tracking of LADAR 3D point-cloud. Collect data using in-house LADAR system, evaluate algorithm performance, and identify potential areas for improvement.

Large Scale Active Signature Measurements
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nicholas John Morley, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
Understanding object active signature returns is critical in precision optical tracking and atmospheric adaptive optics applications.  Target states (pose, aeroheating, high energy laser engagement) can have detrimental effects on strength of returned active signals leading to reduced system performance.  In addition, large geometrically-complex items do not always afford themselves to radiometrically-correct returns determined by means of modeling and simulation using basic material scatter data.  AFRL is investigating monostatic signatures on complex larger-scale (>1m) objects for track and beacon illuminators operating in the NIR IR.  The Directed Energy Scholar would pursue experimental and analytical research in developing a monostatic signature measurement device based on an in-house 1.5-m Mersenne telescope; and, should time permit, characterize illuminated objects of interest to AFRL.  This development effort looks to illuminate with combine multiple beams on an objects such that the beams are coaxially aligned (or very close).

Laser-Based Navigation in GPS-Denied Environments
Summer 2017
Mentor: Morgan Baldwin, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The ability to navigate in a GPS-denied environment is vitally important.  One such solution to navigate in this environment is to use a laser-based communication system between the spacecraft and a groundstation and/or other spacecraft, which provides range information between the spacecraft and the groundstation and/or other spacecraft. This topic seeks to develop a prototype navigation filter to process this information, as well as investigate the accuracy of the navigation solution given different timing errors present in the laser-based communication system. Applicants to this topic are encouraged to have a fundamental understanding of batch least squares estimation and Kalman filtering, as well as a basic understanding of two-body orbital dynamics.

Laser Spectroscopy of Thruster Plume Species
Summer 2017
Mentor: Justin William Young, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
During the STS-63 Space Shuttle mission, spectra of the molecular beam jets produced by the shuttle engine exhaust revealed fluorescence near 300 nm. Largely attributed to OH(A→X) emission, this fluorescence could only be accounted for by including the photodissociation pathway leading from water excited by 121.6 nm light to excited OH radicals as a source of fluorescence. However, this process is not understood well enough to properly model thruster plume emissions, limiting understanding of active satellite plumes. Here, the Space Scholar is involved with recording laboratory measurements studying the photodissociation and fluorescence of common plume species (i.e. water, ammonia, etc.) with gas phase laser spectroscopy. In these experiments, the molecular species are seeded into a jet expansion and probed with Lyman-α radiation generated from four-wave mixing so that the resulting fluorescence can be dispersed and recorded, then the electronic rovibrational state transitions are analyzed.

Laser Spectroscopy of Thruster Plume Species
Summer 2017
Mentor: Justin William Young, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
During the STS-63 Space Shuttle mission, spectra of the molecular beam jets produced by the shuttle engine exhaust revealed fluorescence near 300 nm. Largely attributed to OH(A→X) emission, this fluorescence could only be accounted for by including the photodissociation pathway leading from water excited by 121.6 nm light to excited OH radicals as a source of fluorescence. However, this process is not understood well enough to properly model thruster plume emissions, limiting understanding of active satellite plumes. Here, the Space Scholar is involved with recording laboratory measurements studying the photodissociation and fluorescence of common plume species (i.e. water, ammonia, etc.) with gas phase laser spectroscopy. In these experiments, the molecular species are seeded into a jet expansion and probed with Lyman-α radiation generated from four-wave mixing so that the resulting fluorescence can be dispersed and recorded, then the electronic rovibrational state transitions are analyzed.

Line-of-sight tracking for spacecraft relative motion
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew James Sinclair, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This topic investigates attitude control laws for use in spacecraft proximity operations. When a spacecraft is visually tracking a space object, the requirement for the spacecraft to rotate to keep the object in its camera field of view can present several challenges.  This topic will consider several potential efforts.  One possibility is to contribute to the development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation for implementation in a spacecraft attitude dynamics and control testbed.  The effort could include architecting of the simulation environment to define the interaction of software simulation and hardware components and the development of various dynamics, control, and sensor components.  Another possibility is to compare the performance of various attitude control approaches for visual tracking.  In industrial applications, the camera’s motion is often controlled by visual servoing, based on the pixel coordinates of the viewed object. A goal of this effort would be to utilize knowledge of the object’s orbital dynamics or the relative motion dynamics to provide predictions of the line-of-sight to improve tracking performance.

Line-of-sight tracking for spacecraft relative motion
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew James Sinclair, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This topic investigates attitude control laws for use in spacecraft proximity operations. When a spacecraft is visually tracking a space object, the requirement for the spacecraft to rotate to keep the object in its camera field of view can present several challenges.  This topic will consider several potential efforts.  One possibility is to contribute to the development of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation for implementation in a spacecraft attitude dynamics and control testbed.  The effort could include architecting of the simulation environment to define the interaction of software simulation and hardware components and the development of various dynamics, control, and sensor components.  Another possibility is to compare the performance of various attitude control approaches for visual tracking.  In industrial applications, the camera’s motion is often controlled by visual servoing, based on the pixel coordinates of the viewed object. A goal of this effort would be to utilize knowledge of the object’s orbital dynamics or the relative motion dynamics to provide predictions of the line-of-sight to improve tracking performance.

Machine Learning Applications to SSA
Summer 2017
Mentor: Justin Ryan Fletcher, Directed Energy
Location: AMOS
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Space Situational Awareness (SSA) mission requires accurate identification and discrimination of resident space objects (RSOs). In order to accurately track RSOs, care must be taken to avoid the cross-tagging of objects which appear in close proximity to one another. This problem is particularly difficult when one, or both closely-space objects perform maneuvers. In deep space, this data association problem is further complicated by the inability to obtain spatially-resolved imagery. 

The proposed research involves the development of a machine learning technique to "fingerprint" RSOs using their photometric light curve. As supervised data from the SSA domain is sparse, an unsupervised learning technique is recommended. The students responsibilities will include the acquisition, framing, and pre-processing of SSA data from local subject matter experts at that Advanced Maui Optical Site (AMOS), as well as the selection, with guidance, of an appropriate learning technique. The student will be expected to perform rigorous statistical analysis of the constructed learning algorithm, in order to estimate the generalization error.

Mass and Location of liquid fuel in a tank
Summer 2017
Mentor: Lynn James Neergaard, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School
Static forces applied by liquid fuel inside tanks of simple geometry (spheres, cylinders, cones, boxes) is of interest.  Finding the mass and center of gravity of the fuel as a function of tank orientation and amount of fuel present is the goal of this summer effort.  If time allows, finding the same solutions for tanks made by adding simple geometries is the summer stretch goal.

Material characterization in the terahertz frequency regime
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mayer Landau, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We have a setup that produces picosecond long terahertz (THz) pulses.
These THz pulses are generated from a photoconductive antenna that is hit by 50 femtosecond long pulses from a titanium saphhire laser. We need someone this Summer to analyze various semiconductor samples for their transmission, reflection, and absorption characteristics from 400 Gigahertz to 4 THz. This will entail familiarization with our THz setup, some LabView coding, and taking and analyzing the data. The student will also measure the pulse length of the ti:sapphire pulses using our home-built autocorrelator.

Material characterization in the terahertz frequency regime
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mayer Landau, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
We have a setup that produces picosecond long terahertz (THz) pulses.
These THz pulses are generated from a photoconductive antenna that is hit by 50 femtosecond long pulses from a titanium saphhire laser. We need someone this Summer to analyze various semiconductor samples for their transmission, reflection, and absorption characteristics from 400 Gigahertz to 4 THz. This will entail familiarization with our THz setup, some LabView coding, and taking and analyzing the data. The student will also measure the pulse length of the ti:sapphire pulses using our home-built autocorrelator.

Materials and Sensor Characterization for Hard Target Fuzing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jacob Dodson, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The project will consist of conducting a variety of tasks including designing and performing electrical and mechanical evaluation tests of shock hardened sensors, material characterization for shock mitigation (performing experiments on modified Hopkinson bar tests), and occasionally assisting with the laboratory tasks such as the assembly of new experimental testing capabilities.

Materials Development for Extreme Environments
Summer 2017
Mentor: Amanda Schrand, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project addresses basic research in the area of structural dynamics, response and optimization of materials in extreme environments such as mechanical shock/vibration, electrical, thermal and chemical reactions associated with high strain rate processes.  Both experimental and modeling efforts will be pursued with the goal of structure design and manufacturing with additive manufacturing.

Materials / Mechanical Characterization of High Performance Structural Casing Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Rachel Abrahams, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
High performance, low-cost structural materials are of great importance to the AF mission.  The goal of this project is to develop an understanding between the processing/microstructure of newly designed alloys &amp;amp;amp;amp; additive manufacturing processes with that of the dynamic mechanical response. 

This project involves characterization of microstructure using optical/electron microscopy as well as quasi-static and dynamic mechanical testing using mechanical test frames.  Students will also be responsible for designing and conducting thermal process experiments to develop an improved understanding of phase stability and transformations.  Students will be trained on equipment, and be expected to work as a team with technicians and scientists to accomplish tasks related to develop data and an understanding for new prototype material systems.

Materials / Mechanical Characterization of High Performance Structural Casing Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Rachel Abrahams, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
High performance, low-cost structural materials are of great importance to the AF mission.  The goal of this project is to develop an understanding between the processing/microstructure of newly designed alloys &amp; additive manufacturing processes with that of the dynamic mechanical response. 

This project involves characterization of microstructure using optical/electron microscopy as well as quasi-static and dynamic mechanical testing using mechanical test frames.  Students will also be responsible for designing and conducting thermal process experiments to develop an improved understanding of phase stability and transformations.  Students will be trained on equipment, and be expected to work as a team with technicians and scientists to accomplish tasks related to develop data and an understanding for new prototype material systems.

Materials / Mechanical Characterization of High Performance Structural Casing Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Todd Gordon, Industry Internships
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
High performance, low-cost structural materials are of great importance to the AF mission.  The goal of this project is to develop an understanding between the processing/microstructure of newly designed alloys &amp;amp;amp;amp; additive manufacturing processes with that of the dynamic mechanical response. 

This project involves characterization of microstructure using optical/electron microscopy as well as quasi-static and dynamic mechanical testing using mechanical test frames.  Students will also be responsible for designing and conducting thermal process experiments to develop an improved understanding of phase stability and transformations.  Students will be trained on equipment, and be expected to work as a team with technicians and scientists to accomplish tasks related to develop data and an understanding for new prototype material systems.

Materials / Mechanical Characterization of High Performance Structural Casing Materials
Summer 2017
Mentor: Steven McClendon, Industry Internships
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
High performance, low-cost structural materials are of great importance to the AF mission.  The goal of this project is to develop an understanding between the processing/microstructure of newly designed alloys &amp;amp; additive manufacturing processes with that of the dynamic mechanical response. 

This project involves characterization of microstructure using optical/electron microscopy as well as quasi-static and dynamic mechanical testing using mechanical test frames.  Students will also be responsible for designing and conducting thermal process experiments to develop an improved understanding of phase stability and transformations.  Students will be trained on equipment, and be expected to work as a team with technicians and scientists to accomplish tasks related to develop data and an understanding for new prototype material systems.

Mathematics for Nonlinear System Trajectory Prediction and Sensitivity Quantification
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ryan M. Weisman, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Space object trajectory prediction accuracy and uncertainty characterization over long time spans become increasingly susceptible to model fidelity and state/parameter uncertainty errors.  Given limited measurement data and the need to track many a space object, finite element or panel models of spacecraft can give way to lumped parameters, i.e. the ballistic coefficient.  These lumped representations absorb uncertainty due to truncation of higher-order effects in the dynamic model and do not appropriately reflect physical reality.  Statistical hypothesis testing are commonly based on large sample sizes or Gaussian error behavior but these assumptions are not appropriate given highly nonlinear dynamics and observation sparsity.  This project seeks the derivation and use of mathematical analysis methods providing insight into physical system behavior, e.g. dynamic state time-scales or state-parameter dependence, while accounting for model uncertainty.  Analysis of nonconservative and coupled force perturbations for trajectory prediction and uncertainty quantification is desired along with methods that quantify prediction confidence as a function of model fidelity and measurement information.  The analysis should pave the way for dictating when model fidelity or parameters can be (observability) and/or should be (model uncertainty) be altered with consideration of computational burden is required for maintaining track of objects.

Mechanical Characterization of Explosives and Explosive Simulants
Summer 2017
Mentor: Tomislav Kosta, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The project will consist of designing and conducting a variety of experiments to determine the material properties and characterize the damage mechanisms in Polymer Bonded Explosives (a class of Polymer Matrix Composites) and their inert variants under quasi-static and/or dynamic loading conditions. The mentee will apply current knowledge in mechanical characterization of heterogeneous materials to determine the elastic and plastic properties of a material of interest and identify damage mechanisms (i.e. matrix-filler debonding/delamination, etc.) and quantify the extent of damage. With appropriate guidance, the mentee will have the opportunity to become familiar with a wide variety of topics and techniques including but not limited to: experiment design, mechanical testing methods (i.e. Instron load frame for tension/compression testing, Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar for high-rate compression testing, etc.), imaging methods for damage identification (X-Ray Computed Tomography, Scanning Electron Microscopy, etc.)  and data reduction and analysis techniques.

Mechanistic studies of catalysis in the gas phas
Summer 2017
Mentor: Shaun Gerald Ard, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Ph.D.
The AF has interest in developing catalytic species for applications such as solar fuels; however, development is hampered by a lack of understanding of the mechanisms by which these processes occur. We aim to decipher these mechanisms through a combination of gas phase experimental studies, quantum chemical calculations, and kinetic modeling. Experiments will focus on either biomimetic species or metal cations, measuring the temperature dependent kinetics for systems of interest using a Selected Ion Flow Tube apparatus equipped with a variety of ion sources (electrospray, electron impact, chemical ionization, solids probe, laser vaporization). The (generally complicated) potential surfaces of these systems will be determined using quantum chemical calculations (e.g. Gaussian), and finally information on the mechanisms will be extracted by kinetic modeling of those surfaces to fit to the experimental results.

Minority carrier transport using Electron Beam-Induced Current
Summer 2017
Mentor: Elizabeth H Steenbergen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
For devices made of semiconductor materials, such as transistors, solar cells, or detectors, to operate in a space environment, they must be free of defects, high performing, and reliable.  This project involves characterizing the minority carrier properties of infrared materials for space applications using Electron Beam-Induced Current (EBIC) in conjunction with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Examining the cross-section of an infrared detector with EBIC allows the minority carrier diffusion length, a critical parameter determining the transport characteristics of the device, to be extracted. Different detector materials and architectures will be examined to determine which has the best transport performance.

Misc. Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Projects
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael D. Gallegos, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
The Infrastructure Management Branch (RVOI) of AFRL administers the RV and RD directorate's facility’s needs, through planning, programming, design, and construction including providing architectural solutions. This includes the development of graphic studies in the areas of sustainable design (identifying and implementing energy cost strategies to existing facilities), new facility projects, facility remodeling projects,  facility condition inspections (ICI program), and other misc architecture and engineering design solutions for AFRL's campus. Our program for 2015 Scholars will offer those involved in Architecture and Engineering disciplines the opportunity to have hands on experience within their given fields.
RVOI oversees all PRS facilities and these positions support multiple RV programs.
Targeted Scholars: Late Undergrads, Graduate Students:  Architecture, Civil, and Mechanical engineering students

Misc. Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Projects
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael D. Gallegos, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The Infrastructure Management Branch (RVOI) of AFRL administers the RV and RD directorate's facility’s needs, through planning, programming, design, and construction including providing architectural solutions. This includes the development of graphic studies in the areas of sustainable design (identifying and implementing energy cost strategies to existing facilities), new facility projects, facility remodeling projects,  facility condition inspections (ICI program), and other misc architecture and engineering design solutions including developing Antiterrorism Force Protection for AFRL's campus. Our program for Scholars will offer those involved in Architecture and Engineering disciplines the opportunity to have hands on experience within their given fields.
RVOI oversees all PRS facilities and these positions support multiple RV programs.
Targeted Scholars: Late Undergrads, Graduate Students:  Architecture, Civil, and Mechanical engineering students

Misc. Architecture, Engineering, and Construction Projects
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael D. Gallegos, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The Infrastructure Management Branch (RVOI) of AFRL administers the RV and RD directorate's facility’s needs, through planning, programming, design, and construction including providing architectural solutions. This includes the development of graphic studies in the areas of sustainable design (identifying and implementing energy cost strategies to existing facilities), new facility projects, facility remodeling projects,  facility condition inspections (ICI program), and other misc architecture and engineering design solutions including developing Antiterrorism Force Protection for AFRL's campus. Our program for Scholars will offer those involved in Architecture and Engineering disciplines the opportunity to have hands on experience within their given fields.
RVOI oversees all PRS facilities and these positions support multiple RV programs.
Targeted Scholars: Late Undergrads, Graduate Students:  Architecture, Civil, and Mechanical engineering students

Modeling and Simulation of High power amplifiers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Shadi Naderi, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will focus on modeling and simulation of high power fiber amplifiers. The maximum output power achievable is limited by nonlinear effects and detrimental thermal effects, such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and modal instabilities (MI). Simulating high power fiber amplifiers will enable us to develop new fiber designs that suppress these undesirable nonlinearities.

Modeling and Simulation of High power amplifiers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Shadi Naderi, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project will focus on modeling and simulation of high power fiber amplifiers. The maximum output power achievable is limited by nonlinear effects and detrimental thermal effects, such as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and modal instabilities (MI). Simulating high power fiber amplifiers will enable us to develop new fiber designs that suppress these undesirable nonlinearities.

Modeling and Simulation Testing and Development
Summer 2017
Mentor: Eric Lewis Scarborough, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School
The Lethality, Vulnerability, and Survivability Branch is responsible for assessing weapon effects against buildings and vehicle targets. Branch personnel use a variety of computer simulations to carry out these assessments. The applicant will learn how to run some of these simulations and set up scenarios to test various set-up configurations. The resulting data will be analyzed and findings presented. There will be opportunities for some software development as well.

Molecular Spectroscopy and Computational Chemistry for Spacecraft Technology
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ryan Steven Booth, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Our research centers on the chemistry of space vehicles -- studying molecular-level processes to provide data that supports the development of next generation space-compatible ionic liquids. Specifically, ionic liquids have the potential to be useful in a number of space applications (i.e. satellite propellants) due to their low vapor pressure and lack of appreciable hazards.  In order to tailor ionic liquids for specific applications, it is necessary to understand and be able to control their macroscopic properties (e.g. viscosity).  Experiments suggest that many of these properties are determined from the microscopic interactions between the cation and anion in individual ion pairs and the interactions between multiple ion pairs.  We probe these ionic liquids by using an electrospray ionization source and ion trap along with ultraviolet and infrared lasers.  Our experimental apparatus allows us to acquire detailed spectra that reveal optical and structural properties of ionic liquids.  These experiments are then compared to computational results in order to ascertain the chemical structure.  Additionally, by comparing our experimental results to computational results we can assess the accuracy of different computational methods (e.g. MP2 vs. B3LYP).

Monte Carlo Simulation of Satellite Trajectories
Summer 2017
Mentor: Julian McCafferty, Directed Energy
Location: AMOS
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Space Situational Awareness mission requires us to assign reliable confidence values to the results of our analyses of satellite orbits. Analyses of particular interest to us are predicting probabilities associated with orbital position and velocity of a satellite for sensor acquisition and data association; particle filtering for orbit estimation; predicting probabilities associated with the orbital lifetime of a decaying satellite and the time and geographical position of a reentering satellite; predicting the probability of collision between two satellites; and predicting the probability of exceeding given thresholds of incident energy, power and power density on a satellite illuminated with a directed energy beam. The nonlinear, non-Gaussian nature of the error propagations in all these problems can, in principle, be handled by Monte Carlo simulation and parallel computing. However, for operational applications, the statistical rigor of the simulation is critical and the computational implementation needs to be as efficient as possible. The usual sampling schemes and stopping criteria have disadvantages in this regard. We seek ways to improve or replace traditional sampling methods for our particular applications, and to build Monte Carlo utilities for the above problems on high-performance computing platforms available in-house.

Mueller Matrix Charaterization using Digital Holography
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nicholas John Morley, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
To provide reliable characterization and a comprehensive understanding of the effect a surface material has on reflected polarized light, the Mueller matrix of the surface material of the illuminated object needs to be determined.  Using the full Mueller matrix to characterize the conversion incoming lights Stokes vector to the Stokes vector of the outgoing light can provide enhanced understanding of optical returns during active illumination.  For complex geometric shapes with variable materials, the process of characterizing with standard ellipsometer can be tedious and time consuming.  By capitalizing on digital holography’s ability to record the image information for the full complex field, it is possible to characterize the 3-D Mueller matrix in a rapid fashion while minimizing the need for multiple scans and reregistration.  This project will investigate improved ways to capture and process polarimetric information on structures of interest to the USAF.  Improving techniques to perform these high fidelity measurements are critical for measuring and correctly interpreting tracked object signatures generated by active returns and/or surface properties used in complex modeling codes.  The Directed Energy Scholar would pursue experimental and analytical research in to generate more flexible polarizations sensitive, multi-dimensional, holographic measurement methods.

Natural Systems Sensing and Behavior
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jennifer Talley, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Animals perform autonomous missions finding food and mates while avoiding predators. Flying insects accomplish agile and robust flight performance with coarse sensors and minimal apparent processing (compared to how we currently engineer systems). We would like to understand the details of these systems, in order to apply bio-inspired concepts to improve performance of human-engineered systems. We investigate insect sensors, processing, and flight for application to guidance, navigation, and control engineered systems. Scholar tasks would include hypothesis generation, independent laboratory and field research on insects. Projects combine the fields of engineering, physics, biology, computer programming, histology, and microscopy.

Natural Systems Sensors and Behavior
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jennifer Talley, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School
Animals perform autonomous missions finding food and mates while avoiding predators. Flying insects accomplish agile and robust flight performance with coarse sensors and minimal apparent processing (compared to how we currently engineer systems). We would like to understand the details of these systems, in order to apply bio-inspired concepts to improve performance of human-engineered systems. We investigate insect sensors, processing, and flight for application to guidance, navigation, and control engineered systems. Scholar tasks would include hypothesis generation, independent laboratory and field research on insects. Projects combine the fields of engineering, physics, biology, computer programming, histology, and microscopy.

Natural Systems Sensors and Behavior
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jennifer Talley, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Animals perform autonomous missions finding food and mates while avoiding predators. Flying insects accomplish agile and robust flight performance with coarse sensors and minimal apparent processing (compared to how we currently engineer systems). We would like to understand the details of these systems, in order to apply bio-inspired concepts to improve performance of human-engineered systems. We investigate insect sensors, processing, and flight for application to guidance, navigation, and control engineered systems. Scholar tasks would include hypothesis generation, independent laboratory and field research on insects. Projects combine the fields of engineering, physics, biology, computer programming, histology, and microscopy.

Network Optimization and Control
Summer 2017
Mentor: Eduardo Lewis Pasiliao, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Networked systems are ubiquitous in Air Force missions, both in physical and in cyberspace domains.  According to the Air Force Doctrine Document 3-12 (Cyberspace Operations), a “contested cyber environment” involves circumstances in which one or more adversaries attempt to change the outcome of a mission by denying, degrading, disrupting, or destroying our cyber capabilities, or by altering the usage, product, or our confidence in those capabilities. These adversarial impacts may be of diverse nature and origin, such as “cyber” attacks, as well as “physical” attacks, which can temporarily or permanently disrupt nodes and/or links of a networked system. Clearly, design and operation strategies for modern multi-agent networked systems should take into account potential adversarial conditions; moreover, these systems should be able to effectively reconfigure and adapt to uncertain adversarial impacts. The objective of this research effort is to develop a comprehensive mathematical modeling and algorithmic framework for inherently flexible and reconfigurable operation of networked systems in contested environments. Consequently, this research will enhance autonomous weapon concepts and capabilities, as well as provide optimal network connectivity patterns for multi-agent coordination in contested environments.
This research also addresses the fundamental challenges that arise from integrating data-driven paradigms in settings where agents seek to make strategic decisions in a decentralized manner, and in particular, seek to establish reliable network connections in uncertain and often contested environments. The work expands efforts in modeling the structural behaviors of functioning network models, aimed at facilitating transmission of information for inference and decision-making capabilities, based on fault-tolerant protocol settings. The main thrust of this research is to present design and functionality analyses of autonomous agent-based systems, where each agent dynamically processes the data coming from their connected neighbors and makes local decision or inference about the strategic construction (or revision) of connections for reliable exchange of information across the whole network. In particular, we explore stochastic actor-centered modeling: the framework that was introduced to describe network formation in the social network domain analysis, under the assumption that each actor (here, a networked agent or any rational entity) cooperatively or non-cooperatively makes moves to optimize its objective function based on the structure of its local network, which is comprised of the actor and its nearest neighbors.  This research focuses on the aspects of the data-driven paradigm in connection with behavioral-embodied assumptions of the actor-centered network models and aggregation of the information supplied via local agent interactions; and further propagating this information throughout the whole network.

Nonlinear Filtering Techniques for Multiple Space Object Correlation and Custody
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ryan M. Weisman, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Data association is crucial for performing initial orbit determination, orbit maintenance, and object characterization. Observation sparsity, population size, nonlinearity of motion, and different motion models can lead to poor observation to object association and inaccurate motion prediction.
This project seeks analysis and development of the mathematics and estimation technique(s) that perform (in concert) data association, track maintenance/initiation, and assess confidence in different motion models for multiple objects with nonlinear motion and varying dominant perturbation forces.  The technique is desired to have the ability to 1) appropriately handle sparse data that may be separated by large time gaps with probability of detection less than one, 2) account for model uncertainty without the need to simultaneously estimate dynamic states and model parameters, 3) use and compare approximate/multiple versions of probable motion models, 4) effectively and appropriately use multiple types of observations that may not be simultaneous, and 5) derive/use statistically relevant measures of association and model likelihood.

Nonlinear Optics in Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christian Keith Keyser, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The Electro-Optics Seeker group is studying stimulated Raman scattering and four-wave mixing in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) for the development of multispectral lasers.  The study of nonlinear optics in HCPCF is attractive due to the low interaction thresholds resulting from increased interaction length and the interesting spectral and dispersion properties of HCPCF.  Research facilities include photonic band gap and kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, multiple pump and seed wavelengths, and multiple gases.  Research will focus on experimental investigation of nonlinear phenomena and data analysis.

Not Microwave Safe
Summer 2017
Mentor: Matthew Isaac Landavazo, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Would you dare stick your shiny new smartphone in your microwave oven, even for a second?  Probably not, but you cannot deny it would probably be pretty fun.  The effects of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) has on electronic devices is a complex, multi-faceted problem that requires skills in many disciplines.  It also requires a lot of hands-on work that is a lot of fun.  The student will work closely with their mentor to explore and develop the tools and experiments that intend to inform us on the interaction of IEMI with electronic systems.  Students will have the opportunity to learn and use high frequency lab equipment, learn high frequency circuit theory, design experimental tools, design and carry out laboratory experiments and, most importantly, break things in the name of science!

Not Microwave Safe
Summer 2017
Mentor: Matthew Isaac Landavazo, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Would you dare stick your shiny new smartphone in your microwave oven, even for a second?  Probably not, but you cannot deny it would probably be pretty fun.  The effects of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) has on electronic devices is a complex, multi-faceted problem that requires skills in many disciplines.  It also requires a lot of hands-on work that is a lot of fun.  The student will work closely with their mentor to explore and develop the tools and experiments that intend to inform us on the interaction of IEMI with electronic systems.  Students will have the opportunity to learn and use high frequency lab equipment, learn high frequency circuit theory, design experimental tools, design and carry out laboratory experiments and, most importantly, break things in the name of science!

Not Microwave Safe
Summer 2017
Mentor: Matthew Isaac Landavazo, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Would you dare stick your shiny new smartphone in your microwave oven, even for a second?  Probably not, but you cannot deny it would probably be pretty fun.  The effects of intentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI) has on electronic devices is a complex, multi-faceted problem that requires skills in many disciplines.  It also requires a lot of hands-on work that is a lot of fun.  The student will work closely with their mentor to explore and develop the tools and experiments that intend to inform us on the interaction of IEMI with electronic systems.  Students will have the opportunity to learn and use high frequency lab equipment, learn high frequency circuit theory, design experimental tools, design and carry out laboratory experiments and, most importantly, break things in the name of science!

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Glenn Eli Baker, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The goal of our program is to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capability through studies focused on seismic signal and array processing, Earth structure, wave propagation, source characterization, and explosion source physics. Specific details of the project will be based on aligning interests of the program with the applicant’s background to ensure effective progress on a problem of interest to the Air Force. The intent of the summer project is that it will build capability at AFRL while providing the student with results they can build on and use in their thesis work.

Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Seismology
Summer 2017
Mentor: Frederick Schult, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The goal of our program is to improve nuclear explosion monitoring capability through seismology studies focused on seismic signal and array processing, Earth structure, wave propagation, source characterization, and explosion
source physics. Specific details of the project will be based on aligning interests of the program with the applicant's background to ensure effective progress on a problem of interest to the Air Force. The intent of the summer project is to build capability at AFRL while providing the student with results they can build on and use in their thesis work.

Numerical Algorithms for Satellite Imagery
Summer 2017
Mentor: William Alexander Toussaint, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Processing of satellite imagery poses a variety of challenging limitations, ranging from the resource constraints of space-based processing to the near real-time demand of data analysis for missile warning.  Many of these approaches for processing these data sets make use of common mathematical algorithms such as eigenvector decomposition or the Fast Fourier Transform, but more needs to be done to match the specific demands of a given mission and computing environment with one of the numerous approaches that have been developed for calculating these algorithms.

As part of this research project, the student will be responsible for looking “under the hood” at one or more mathematical algorithms commonly used in analysis of satellite imagery.  The student will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various implementations of these algorithms either by implementing existing code or writing new functions, with the goal of determining ideal routines to use for specific missions.   The end result will be incorporated into an Air Force toolset for processing satellite imagery.

Numerical Algorithms for Satellite Imagery
Summer 2017
Mentor: William Alexander Toussaint, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
Processing of satellite imagery poses a variety of challenging limitations, ranging from the resource constraints of space-based processing to the near real-time demand of data analysis for missile warning.  Many of these approaches for processing these data sets make use of common mathematical algorithms such as eigenvector decomposition or the Fast Fourier Transform, but more needs to be done to match the specific demands of a given mission and computing environment with one of the numerous approaches that have been developed for calculating these algorithms.

As part of this research project, the student will be responsible for looking “under the hood” at one or more mathematical algorithms commonly used in analysis of satellite imagery.  The student will evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of various implementations of these algorithms either by implementing existing code or writing new functions, with the goal of determining ideal routines to use for specific missions.   The end result will be incorporated into an Air Force toolset for processing satellite imagery.

Observability, Information Conditioning, and Confidence Analysis for Space Object Tracking
Summer 2017
Mentor: Ryan M. Weisman, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Appropriately using sensor information to confirm or update the trajectory and attitude model of orbiting space objects is critical to representing awareness of space activity.  Objects are unique and their model parameters (e.g. attitude, shape, size) alter the trajectory over varying prediction horizons given the coupling of attitude and orbital dynamics.  These effects manifest is different ways depending upon the orbit/object type and the available observations limit the ability to distinguish between different object types in a timely manner.  This project seeks to research and develop methodologies using space object nonlinear dynamics, sensor measurement models, and statistical hypothesis testing to online adapt the number of states/parameters estimated, attribute solution confidence based on accumulated information, and identify specific data types and probable time windows for refining object knowledge.  Further consideration should be given to how the methods better enable multiple object tracking, tracking through unmodeled disturbances, and trajectory uncertainty evolution modeling over the anticipated prediction horizon.

Optical Characterization and Modeling of Spacecraft Plumes
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jaime Stearns, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
We are interested in modeling and characterizing chemical thruster plumes for spacecraft tracking. One of the most promising phenomena is the solar excitation of plume species resulting in near-UV fluorescence. While we have built models of the plume and have a basic understanding of the physics, we still have a strong need to understand the suitability and limitations of this approach for various observing scenarios. For example, for a thruster of a given type and size, what type of sensor and proximity are required for adequate signal-to-noise ratio? How does solar reflection of the satellite itself contribute in the near-UV? The goal of this Scholar project will be to use existing models and software in our lab to address these questions.

Optically Pumped Lasers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Greg A. Pitz, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This topic involces conducting research and development in the field of optically pumped lasers. There various thrusts in this area including diode pumped alkali lasers as well as optically pumped rare gas lasers.  Experimental area includes small scale laser demonstrations,and pressure broadening and shift rate explorations. There is also oppurtunity to develop and test advanced diagnostics for enhancing the understanding of these systems.

Optically Pumped Lasers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Greg A. Pitz, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
This topic involces conducting research and development in the field of optically pumped lasers. There various thrusts in this area including diode pumped alkali lasers as well as optically pumped rare gas lasers.  Experimental area includes small scale laser demonstrations,and pressure broadening and shift rate explorations. There is also oppurtunity to develop and test advanced diagnostics for enhancing the understanding of these systems.

Optically Pumped Lasers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Greg A. Pitz, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
This topic involces conducting research and development in the field of optically pumped lasers. There various thrusts in this area including diode pumped alkali lasers as well as optically pumped rare gas lasers.  Experimental area includes small scale laser demonstrations,and pressure broadening and shift rate explorations. There is also oppurtunity to develop and test advanced diagnostics for enhancing the understanding of these systems.

Optimization Problems in Spacecraft Dynamics and Formation Flying
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Many problems in orbital dynamics can be formulated as optimization problems with an appropriate choice of cost function.  This research focuses on the formulation and solving of optimization problems for multi-spacecraft trajectory and formation applications.  Formation design problems often involve a number of constraints of various types.  For instance, one current area of research interest is the design of formations for localization of ground or space based transmissions.  For this example, the optimal formation will be one that gives the best viewing geometry of the area of interest, while minimizing the fuel required to create the formation, arriving over the target in a timely fashion, and perhaps allowing for reconfiguration for later mission requirements, allowing for maximum redundancy and other possible factors.  Other optimization problems of interest include optimal maneuver planning to support proximity operations, viewing of other objects for orbit determination, or cooperative operations.  Possible approaches include classical optimization problem solving methods, as well as genetic algorithms, pseudo-spectral methods or other innovative techniques.

Optimization Problems in Spacecraft Dynamics and Formation Flying
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Many problems in orbital dynamics can be formulated as optimization problems with an appropriate choice of cost function.  This research focuses on the formulation and solving of optimization problems for multi-spacecraft trajectory and formation applications.  Formation design problems often involve a number of constraints of various types.  For instance, one current area of research interest is the design of formations for localization of ground or space based transmissions.  For this example, the optimal formation will be one that gives the best viewing geometry of the area of interest, while minimizing the fuel required to create the formation, arriving over the target in a timely fashion, and perhaps allowing for reconfiguration for later mission requirements, allowing for maximum redundancy and other possible factors.  Other optimization problems of interest include optimal maneuver planning to support proximity operations, viewing of other objects for orbit determination, or cooperative operations.  Possible approaches include classical optimization problem solving methods, as well as genetic algorithms, pseudo-spectral methods or other innovative techniques.

Oscillating Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Thermal Management
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brenton Taft, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP) is a simply formed, wickless heat pipe that relies on the phase change induced motion of a contained working fluid to transport heat between the evaporator and condenser. The improved heat transfer capability, simplicity, and reduced mass of embedded OHPs make them ideal for some spacecraft thermal control applications. The student(s) selected for this topic may design, build, and test OHPs for spacecraft thermal management applications.

Oscillating Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Thermal Management
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brenton Taft, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP) is a simply formed, wickless heat pipe that relies on the phase change induced motion of a contained working fluid to transport heat between the evaporator and condenser. The improved heat transfer capability, simplicity, and reduced mass of embedded OHPs make them ideal for some spacecraft thermal control applications. The student(s) selected for this topic may design, build, and test OHPs for spacecraft thermal management applications.

Oscillating Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Thermal Management
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brenton Taft, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP) is a simply formed, wickless heat pipe that relies on the phase change induced motion of a contained working fluid to transport heat between the evaporator and condenser. The improved heat transfer capability, simplicity, and reduced mass of embedded OHPs make them ideal for some spacecraft thermal control applications. The student(s) selected for this topic may design, build, and test OHPs for spacecraft thermal management applications.

Performance Optimization in Cloud Computing Environment
Summer 2017
Mentor: Larry E Parten, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will explore how a High Performance Computing resource can best be exploited to solve real-world analysis problems.  The scholar will conduct testing and performance analysis of a variety of models and configurations to enhance throughput and streamline procedures.  The host sytem for this analysis will be an OpenStack based cluster featuring massively parallel CPU and GPU capabilities.  The main software used in the experiment will be DAKOTA, a Sandia National Labs developed code that incorporates a wide array of metaheuristic optimization algorithms.

Photoluminescence studies of semiconductors for space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Elizabeth H Steenbergen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
For devices made of semiconductor materials, such as transistors, solar cells, or detectors, to operate in a  space environment, they must be free of defects, high performing, and reliable.  This project involves characterizing the optical properties of infrared materials for space applications using photoluminescence.  The photoluminescence characteristics versus temperature and excitation intensity reveal the contributions of radiative and non-radiative recombination and average phonon and activation energies.  These values are used to assess the maturity of the material for the desired operating conditions.

Plasma Chemistry for Space Applications
Summer 2017
Mentor: Albert Viggiano, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Ph.D.
We study a broad range of plasma chemistry including electron attachment, ion-molecule reactions, dissociative recombination, and mutual neutralization. We specialize in studying difficult species, radicals, and extended temperature ranges. Several fast flow plasma reaction apparatuses are used. The ion-molecule temperature range is 90-1800 K, while for the other plasma processes temperatures up to 1400 K can be studied. Recent successes include measuring the only product distributions for mutual neutralization, electron attachment to fluorocarbon radicals, and the discovery that electrons catalyze mutual neutralization. A recent upgrade has allowed for studies of radicals with electrosprayed ions, which is important for solar fuels research.
The data support a wide variety of AF/DoD applications including the natural ionosphere, hypersonic vehicles, plasmas assisted combustion, high power lasers, conversion of gaseous to liquid fuels, trace gas detection, high energy density materials, and other catalytic processes.

Plasma -Microwave Interactions
Summer 2017
Mentor: Remington Reid, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The research focuses on the generation and interaction of plasmas with high power microwaves.  Students will have the opportunity to participate in device construction for diagnostic systems and gain experience in data acquisition and analysis.

Plasmonic and Optical Devices
Summer 2017
Mentor: Monica Suresh Allen, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The major objectives of this work are to design, simulate and fabricate plasmonic and micro-/nano-resonant structures and devices for optical and photonics applications. Examples of such structures may include metallic media, semiconductor patterned structures, Fano-resonant antennas, plasmonic metamaterials, or resonant nanocavities. Theoretical models and computational simulations will be developed for these structures to describe the electromagnetic behavior as well as to optimize these devices. The resulting fabrication techniques and modeling methods will lead to new technology for devices that can be tailored for specific detection schemes for optical signal enhancement and detection. It is anticipated that the modeling/fabrication/characterization efforts will be iterative towards the development of a highly sensitive optical platform that is robust and wavelength scalable.

Plasmonic and Optical Devices
Summer 2017
Mentor: Monica Suresh Allen, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: High School
The major objectives of this work are to design, simulate and fabricate plasmonic and micro-/nano-resonant structures and devices for optical and photonics applications. Examples of such structures may include metallic media, semiconductor patterned structures, Fano-resonant antennas, plasmonic metamaterials, or resonant nanocavities. Theoretical models and computational simulations will be developed for these structures to describe the electromagnetic behavior as well as to optimize these devices. The resulting fabrication techniques and modeling methods will lead to new technology for devices that can be tailored for specific detection schemes for optical signal enhancement and detection. It is anticipated that the modeling/fabrication/characterization efforts will be iterative towards the development of a highly sensitive optical platform that is robust and wavelength scalable.

Polychromatic guidestar implementation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert L. Johnson, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Work on integrating the VECSEL laser developed jointly with the UNM into the Starfire Optical range to determine if enough return can be garnered from a two line excitation of sodium utilizing a current 589 nm guidestar and a secondary guidestar 1141 nm VECSEL to enable correction of Tip and Tilt by creating a polychromatic cooperative source in the mesosphere.

Precision magnetic traps for atomic physics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brian Kasch, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Controlled magnetic fields are critical to the operation of confined atom interferometers, and associated inertial sensors. This project involves further developing in-house capabilities for laser etching so-called 'atom chips'. We use inexpensive DBC substrates: aluminum nitride with a layer of copper bonded to each face. By laser cutting specific wire shapes into the copper, we can create well-controlled magnetic fields simply by varying the applied currents. These chips already enable a variety of experiments involving ultracold atoms, and were used to create a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our goal is to progress to more advanced structures and processes, carefully characterize the laser mill cuts, and reduce the need for post-processing due to trace defects.

Precision magnetic traps for atomic physics
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brian Kasch, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Controlled magnetic fields are critical to the operation of confined atom interferometers, and associated inertial sensors. This project involves further developing in-house capabilities for laser etching so-called 'atom chips'. We use inexpensive DBC substrates: aluminum nitride with a layer of copper bonded to each face. By laser cutting specific wire shapes into the copper, we can create well-controlled magnetic fields simply by varying the applied currents. These chips already enable a variety of experiments involving ultracold atoms, and were used to create a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our goal is to progress to more advanced structures and processes, carefully characterize the laser mill cuts, and reduce the need for post-processing due to trace defects.

Precision magnetic traps for atomic physics.
Summer 2017
Mentor: Brian Kasch, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Controlled magnetic fields are critical to the operation of confined atom interferometers, and associated inertial sensors. This project involves further developing in-house capabilities for laser etching so-called 'atom chips'. We use inexpensive DBC substrates: aluminum nitride with a layer of copper bonded to each face. By laser cutting specific wire shapes into the copper, we can create well-controlled magnetic fields simply by varying the applied currents. These chips already enable a variety of experiments involving ultracold atoms, and were used to create a Bose-Einstein condensate. Our goal is to progress to more advanced structures and processes, carefully characterize the laser mill cuts, and reduce the need for post-processing due to trace defects.

Propagation of solar energetic particles in space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen Kahler, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Big solar eruptive events often result in the production of highly energetic particles that propagate from the Sun out to the Earth and beyond.  In some cases these solar energetic particles (SEPs) reach GeV energies, cause serious communications and spacecraft problems, and can be detected with ground based detectors.  The general understanding is that SEPs are accelerated in shock waves in the solar corona that are driven by mass ejections in the eruptive events.  The SEPs propagate along magnetic field lines away from the Sun and spread throughout interplanetary space.  Our work attempts to understand the origin of the SEPs - what seed particles are accelerated, and when and where in the eruptive events?  What eruptions or solar conditions are favorable or unfavorable for SEP production?  We use data sets of spacecraft in situ observations of SEPs and space and groun-based optical, radio, EUV, and X-ray observations of solar eruptions to characterize and understand SEP production.  Because of the great diversity of SEP events, the work is often statistical in nature, with analysis of properties of many observed SEP events.

Propagation of solar energetic particles in space
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen Kahler, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
Big solar eruptive events often result in the production of highly energetic particles that propagate from the Sun out to the Earth and beyond.  In some cases these solar energetic particles (SEPs) reach GeV energies, cause serious communications and spacecraft problems, and can be detected with ground based detectors.  The general understanding is that SEPs are accelerated in shock waves in the solar corona that are driven by mass ejections in the eruptive events.  The SEPs propagate along magnetic field lines away from the Sun and spread throughout interplanetary space.  Our work attempts to understand the origin of the SEPs - what seed particles are accelerated, and when and where in the eruptive events?  What eruptions or solar conditions are favorable or unfavorable for SEP production?  We use data sets of spacecraft in situ observations of SEPs and space and ground-based optical, radio, EUV, and X-ray observations of solar eruptions to characterize and understand SEP production.  Because of the great diversity of SEP events, the work is often statistical in nature, with analysis of properties of many observed SEP events.

Radar techniques for fuzing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Matthew Burfeindt, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Investigate radar techniques related to fuzing. Potential technical work may include the following: 
-Digital signal processing / image processing techniques related to radar. May include implementation, evaluation, and modification of radar processing algorithms from the literature. 
-Automation, control, and interfacing of hardware related to real-time radar data collection

Radiatino Studies of memristor devices and circuits
Summer 2017
Mentor: Arthur Henry Edwards, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Memristors hold great promise for non-volitile memory, including multi-state memory, for threshold logic, and for more advanced neuromorphic computation. There are questions about their utility in a radiation environment. In this project, we plan to study total dose, dose-rate and, possibly, single event effects on memristor circuits. Most work will use the AFRL-Kirtland radiation sources.

Radio emission from the solar atmosphere
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen M White, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will study the relationship between the radio emission in the solar corona and other physical properties such as magnetic fields and emission from hot plasma at EUV wavelengths. The project will use images obtained at multiple wavelengths with the Very Large Array radio telescope, as well as complementary satellite data.

Radiometric and Radiation Characterization of III-V Barrier Architecture IR Detectors
Summer 2017
Mentor: Vincent Cowan, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The AF and DOD as a whole would like to increase the operating temperature of VIS-LWIR detectors.  The goal of this topic is to better understand the fundamental mechanisms that drive the overall dark current in III-V based barrier architecture detectors such as, but not limited to, nBn, pBp, complementary barriers, etc.  By developing an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that limit performance it is anticipated that improved barrier architecture detector designs will result in detectors that can be operated at higher temperatures resulting in an eliminated or reduced need for cryocoolers.  Summer research thrusts can be in several areas including: dark current, QE, and noise measurements.  These detectors will ultimately be utilized in a space environment so there is keen interest in understanding their performance when subjected to ionizing radiation.  Deliverables from this research will ultimately dictate the path forward in future detector growth-characterization campaigns.

Radiometric and Radiation Tollerance Characterization of III-V Barrier Architecture IR Detectors
Summer 2017
Mentor: Vincent Cowan, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The AF and DOD as a whole would like to increase the operating temperature of VIS-LWIR detectors.  The goal of this topic is to better understand the fundamental mechanisms that drive the overall dark current in III-V based barrier architecture detectors such as, but not limited to, nBn, pBp, complementary barriers, etc.  By developing an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that limit performance it is anticipated that improved barrier architecture detector designs will result in detectors that can be operated at higher temperatures resulting in an eliminated or reduced need for cryocoolers.  Summer research thrusts can be in several areas including: dark current, QE, and noise measurements.  These detectors will ultimately be utilized in a space environment so there is keen interest in understanding their performance when subjected to ionizing radiation.  Deliverables from this research will ultimately dictate the path forward in future detector growth-characterization campaigns.

Radiometric and Radiation Tollerance Characterization of III-V Barrier Architecture IR Detectors
Summer 2017
Mentor: Vincent Cowan, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The AF and DOD as a whole would like to increase the operating temperature of VIS-LWIR detectors.  The goal of this topic is to better understand the fundamental mechanisms that drive the overall dark current in III-V based barrier architecture detectors such as, but not limited to, nBn, pBp, complementary barriers, etc.  By developing an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that limit performance it is anticipated that improved barrier architecture detector designs will result in detectors that can be operated at higher temperatures resulting in an eliminated or reduced need for cryocoolers.  Summer research thrusts can be in several areas including: dark current, QE, and noise measurements.  These detectors will ultimately be utilized in a space environment so there is keen interest in understanding their performance when subjected to ionizing radiation.  Deliverables from this research will ultimately dictate the path forward in future detector growth-characterization campaigns.

Reachability Analysis for Maneuvering Spacecraft
Summer 2017
Mentor: Richard Scott Erwin, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project seeks to develop tools for predicting the boundaries of the set of all possible spacecraft trajectories given bounds on the spacecraft’s control inputs and a terminal time constraint.  The project will look at approaches for computing these sets with an emphasis on being scalable to realistic problem dimensions (state dimension between 4 and 12), applicability to both linear and nonlinear system dynamics, and ability to deal with both stable and unstable open-loop system dynamics.  The project will focus on three different spacecraft dynamic models: inertial frame orbital dynamics, relative spacecraft dynamics in the local horizontal/local vertical frame; and spacecraft attitude dynamics.  In all cases, the ability to handle problem constraints via computation of reach-avoid sets will be examined.

References:

1.	Holzinger, M. J., Scheeres, D. J., and Erwin, R. S., “On-Orbit Range Computation using Gauss’ Variational Equations with Perturbations,” AIAA Journal of Guidance, Control, and Dynamics Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 608-622, 2014.

2.	Dueri, D., Acikmese, B., Baldwin, M., and Erwin, R. S., “Finite-Horizon Controllability and Reachability for Deterministic and Stochastic Linear Control Systems with Convex Constraints,” Proc. Amer. Contr. Conf., pp. 5016 – 5023, Portland, OR, June 2014.

3.	Lesser, K., Oishi, M., and Erwin, R. S., “Stochastic Reachability for Control of Spacecraft Relative Motion,” 52nd IEEE Conf. on Dec. Contr., pp. 4705 – 4712, Fireze, Italy, December 2013.

Real-time Application of Predictive Controllers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Daniel Petersen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project will focus on the creation and application of real-time predictive controllers for spacecraft systems.  Examples of such controllers are Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Reference Governors, both of which have been applied to systems on the ground with much success but have very limitedly been applied to actual spacecraft in orbit.  Such things that will be considered are (a) computation time (average and worst case) necessary to run the predictive control, (b) computational burden, (c) how robust to navigation error and disturbances it is, and (d) will it still gives an admissible control signal if the solver fails. The end goal is to have real-time code that can be implemented on a robotic testbed.

Real-time Application of Predictive Controllers for Spacecraft
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christopher Daniel Petersen, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will focus on the creation and application of real-time predictive controllers for spacecraft systems.  Examples of such controllers are Model Predictive Control (MPC) and Reference Governors, both of which have been applied to systems on the ground with much success but have very limitedly been applied to actual spacecraft in orbit.  Such things that will be considered are (a) computation time (average and worst case) necessary to run the predictive control, (b) computational burden, (c) how robust to navigation error and disturbances it is, and (d) will it still gives an admissible control signal if the solver fails. The end goal is to have real-time code that can be implemented on a robotic testbed.

Resilient Bus Experiment Laboratory
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joy Stein, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The AFRL has the world’s largest spherical air bearing testbed, which is used to simulate or test spacecraft complete with a full attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS), electrical power subsystem (EPS), and other spacecraft subsystems and components.  These testbeds allow for three-degree-of-freedom motion of the test article.  The laboratory is used to test small satellites' ADCS system, compare and  contrast sensor performance, and enable satellite operator training.  Summer Scholars can work on a variety of projects ranging from hardware integration to software simulation.  Projects will be assigned based on student skillset.  A partial list of topics follows; if students want to discuss more topics in further detail, they should contact the project mentor. Partial topic list: orbit disturbance modeling (torque and translational), reaction control thrusters, hardware integration and test, orbit guidance, GUI development, and computer vision.

Resilient Bus Experiment Laboratory
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joy Stein, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The AFRL has the world’s largest spherical air bearing testbed, which is used to simulate or test spacecraft complete with a full attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS), electrical power subsystem (EPS), and other spacecraft subsystems and components.  These testbeds allow for three-degree-of-freedom motion of the test article.  The laboratory is used to test small satellites' ADCS system, compare and  contrast sensor performance, and enable satellite operator training.  Summer Scholars can work on a variety of projects ranging from hardware integration to software simulation.  Projects will be assigned based on student skillset.  A partial list of topics follows; if students want to discuss more topics in further detail, they should contact the project mentor. Partial topic list: control moment gyros (CMGs), reaction wheels, orbit disturbance modeling (torque and translational), reaction control thrusters, hardware integration and test, orbit guidance, GUI development, and computer vision.

Robotic End Effector Engineering for Spacecraft Assembly
Summer 2017
Mentor: Oscar Martinez, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Advanced manufacturing techniques are taking an increasing role throughout industry.  Intelligent robotic assembly of products has the potential to have a massive impact on the future of how things are built, particularly resulting in a considerable increase of both productivity and quality.  Accomplishing this assembly requires a multifaceted approach to robotics that entails a talented coordination of machine learning, machine vision, image processing, forward/inverse kinematics, and end effector manipulation, among a multitude of other supporting tools.

This project uses a Baxter Robot from Rethink Robotics, Inc.  Baxter has a simple two-prong gripper currently serving as an end effector for each arm.  This project will benefit from a student with an engineering background to design and build the necessary tooling and variations on Baxter’s current end effectors in order to enable the robot to assemble a simple satellite analog.  Use of CAD software and additive manufacturing will be highly encouraged.

Robotic End Effector Engineering for Spacecraft Assembly
Summer 2017
Mentor: Oscar Martinez, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Advanced manufacturing techniques are taking an increasing role throughout industry.  Intelligent robotic assembly of products has the potential to have a massive impact on the future of how things are built, particularly resulting in a considerable increase of both productivity and quality.  Accomplishing this assembly requires a multifaceted approach to robotics that entails a talented coordination of machine learning, machine vision, image processing, forward/inverse kinematics, and end effector manipulation, among a multitude of other supporting tools.

This project uses a Baxter Robot from Rethink Robotics, Inc.  Baxter has a simple two-prong gripper currently serving as an end effector for each arm.  This project will benefit from a student with an engineering background to design and build the necessary tooling and variations on Baxter’s current end effectors in order to enable the robot to assemble a simple satellite analog.  Use of CAD software and additive manufacturing will be highly encouraged.

Role-Based Access Control for Embedded Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Students will conduct tests using the application of existing techniques and implementations for performing role-based access control in an off-the-shelf Linux operating system (such as SELinux or AppArmor) within the context of an embedded, real-time software system.

Satellite Research Project
Summer 2017
Mentor: Waid Thomas Schlaegel, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The Satellite Assessment Center (SatAC) has a large investment in algorithms and software for estimating the brightness of artificial satellites.  A satellite’s brightness depends greatly on its size, specifically its cross-sectional area.  In the absence of other information, we must rely upon radar measurements, known as radar cross section; but these data do not necessarily correspond well to the physical cross section.  A database of actual dimensions exists, but it is in a free-format file with non-standardized entries.  This makes it extremely difficult for a computer program to extract the relevant information stored in the database.  Due to these software limitations, we need a human interface to read each entry and interpret the relevant data.  In this project, the scholar will extract dimensions from the database and calculate standard magnitude for access by SatAC computer programs to predict satellite brightness more accurately.  For unusual shapes, such as a toroid, some satellite research will be required to understand database dimensions.  A basic knowledge of geometric shapes and their cross-sectional areas is essential.  This project is very important and valuable to future efforts within the SatAC.

Small Satellite Program Lab Assistant
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jeff Ganley, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The potential applicant will be supporting the AFRL Small Satellite Program (SSP), which designs, builds and flies small satellites for Air Force mission needs. The primary work location will be the SSP integration and test (I&T) facility on Kirtland AFB, NM. Primary duties will include assisting the I&T staff with the running of the I&T facility.  This includes general lab maintenance, assisting with satellite integration and environmental tests, and assisting with mechanical and electrical tasks as required.  No special skills are required - only an ability to work safely and efficiently in an I&T setting. Secondary duties will include assisting the University Nanosat Program (UNP) with the execution of the UNP Program. These duties include assisting with the execution of the program logistics (i.e. meeting prep, University coordination, etc.)

Sodium Layer Density Study
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert L. Johnson, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Starfire Optical Range at Kirtland AFB, NM uses large telescopes with adaptive optics to image satellites LEO to GEO using a Sodium Beacon Guidestar (NaLGS).  The guidestar illuminates a layer of sodium approximately 90Km in altitude which is approximately 10Km thick but varies throughout the day and throughout the year and by geographic location. Students would research sodium density Kirtland AFB. Historical sodium data will be provided and analysis on sodium density trends at the SOR site be required. 
After completing the analysis of sodium over Kirtland time permitting an analysis of worldwide sodium guidestar use at all varying telescope sites will be requested. To analysis trends and provide recommendations on the value of 50W, 100W, 150W sodium guidestar technology.

Software Development to Predict Energetic Material Behavior
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dimitar M Stoyanov, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Extensive effort has been spent on optimization routines in order to develop virtual energetic materials for future warhead designs. These optimization routines, bundled together into a single software, allow state-of-the-art descriptions of energetic materials by fitting model parameters against experimental high-explosive data. Due to the enormous computational requirements of the optimizer, all computations are performed on the massively parallel DoD High Performance Computing (HPC) center supercomputers. The optimizer itself is a conglomerate of scripts, high-explosive solver input decks, and data-processing Python routines that are managed by an overarching Python software framework. This project is to employ at least two Scholars to collaboratively expand, through the use of a version control system, the functionality of the software. Expanded functionality will focus on constructing new virtual energetic material modeling routines to include various state-of-the-art Department of Energy high-explosive Modeling &amp; Simulation solvers. Development efforts of interest include the implementation of a software interface to the HPC supercomputers and a real-time data monitoring capability. The Scholars will generate their own energetic material model parameters through the use of the software, and the results will be used in future warhead designs.

Solar Driven Space Weather Models
Summer 2017
Mentor: Carl Henney, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Modeling the global solar magnetic field is critical for forecasting space weather events. Individuals interested in working with the input data used to drive solar wind models are encourged to apply for this oppertunity. The project involves working with a variety of ground and space based solar disk observations, as well as in-situ data from multiple spacecraft.

Solar Flares, filament eruptions and related phenomena
Summer 2017
Mentor: Karatholuvu Balasubramaniam, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Solar flares filament eruptions and related phenomena are a cause of violent space weather.  Understanding their physical properties is imperitive to model and predict large solar flares.  During this summer research we will examine and explore the parametric space of potential factors  leading to solar flares and filament eruptions. We will use characterize the spatial, temporal, magnetic and emission properties of solar eruptions and their neighborhood, and the energy release mechanisms, leading to them   These results will help in developing forecast models for solar flares.    During the summer the candidate will develop an excellent understanding of solar physics, space weather, computational methods, statistics, & image processing.

Solar Telescope
Summer 2017
Mentor: Rachel Hock-Mysliwiec, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
AFRL maintains and runs a solar telescope. Over the years, various spare parts have been accumulating in building. Selected high school students will conduct an inventory of these parts, be trained to perform basic and routine maintenance, and run the telescope.

Solid State Lasers and Hybrid Lasers
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andrew Ongstad, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
Research opportunities are available in the area of solid-state laser and hybrid laser technologies. These lasers include slab lasers, spinning disk lasers, fiber-gas laser hybrids and ultra-short pulse lasers.  Lasers operating in the near-IR (around 1 micron) and mid-IR (3-5 micron) are of interest for a variety of applications. Research activities can include building, characterizing, and testing solid-state lasers, which utilize various solid-state gain media.  In addition work on hybrid lasers is possible; these include gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber lasers as well as various Raman lasers.  The laser laboratories are well equipped with several high-power laser diode arrays (LDAs), fiber-coupled LDAs, solid-state and fiber lasers for pumping a wide variety of gain media.   In addition, the labs are fully equipped with all instrumentation and computational resources necessary to carry out state-of-the-art research on solid-state & hybrid lasers.

Solving Systems of Polynomials for Astrodynamics Applications
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
DESCRIPTION: This project involves linear algebra-based techniques to solve 
systems of coupled polynomials in several variables.  Such polynomials have 
applications in many scientific fields, particularly orbital mechanics.  While 
solving the roots of polynomials is not trivial, several approaches have been 
derived in the mathematics field.  For this project, it is desired that the 
student will use existing approaches to solve systems of polynomials for 
problems in spacecraft navigation and space surveillance.  This can be 
accomplished in part with basic "pen and paper" algebraic derivation, but can 
also be performed using computational software (e.g. MATLAB or Mathematica) if 
the student is capable in that area.  Specific applications of these 
techniques will include spacecraft navigation and radio-frequency localization 
(i.e. geolocation).  This work has the potential to be published in a 
conference paper or journal article.

Space Communications: mm Wave Communication Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nicholas Tarasenko, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Future military satellite communication architectures may utilize higher frequencies such as 71 - 76 GHz (V-band) and 81 - 86 GHz (W-band). Development and validation of models for propagation effects at these frequencies would be required to exploit these bandwidths. Possible research
areas for this topic include: (1) modeling and simulation of the communication channel; (2) developing and conducting experiments to validate models; (3) collecting and analyzing radiometry data, (4) antenna design, testing, and analysis; and (5) digital signal processing. To enable real world scientific research in the areas listed above, AFRL is coordinating the installation of a unique W/V-band terrestrial link experiment.  Students interested will assist in the day-to-day operations of this experiment to include laboratory testing, data collection and analysis, and site visits for visual inspection and routine maintenance to ensure proper equipment operation. Specific projects would be tailored to the student's interests and skills, but would require a basic understanding of electrical engineering, particularly radio frequency signal propagation, and interest in space communications.

Space Communications: mm-Wave Communication Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nicholas Tarasenko, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Future military satellite communication architectures may
utilize higher frequencies such as 71 - 76 GHz (V-band) and 81 - 86 GHz (W-band). Development and validation of models for propagation effects at these frequencies would be required to exploit these bandwidths. Possible research
areas for this topic include: (1) modeling and simulation of the communication channel; (2) developing and conducting experiments to validate models; (3) collecting and analyzing radiometry data, (4) antenna design, testing, and 
analysis; and (5) digital signal processing. To enable real world scientific research in the areas listed above, AFRL is coordinating the installation of a unique W/V-band terrestrial link experiment.  Students interested will
assist in the day-to-day operations of this experiment to include laboratory testing, data collection and analysis, and site visits for visual inspection and routine maintenance to ensure proper equipment operation. Specific projects would be tailored to the student's interests and skills, but would require a basic understanding of electrical engineering, particularly radio frequency signal propagation, and interest in space communications.

Space Communications: mm-Wave Communication Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Nicholas Tarasenko, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Future military satellite communication architectures may
utilize higher frequencies such as 71 - 76 GHz (V-band) and 81 - 86 GHz (W-band). Development and validation of models for propagation effects at these frequencies would be required to exploit these bandwidths. Possible research
areas for this topic include: (1) modeling and simulation of the communication channel; (2) developing and conducting experiments to validate models; (3) collecting and analyzing radiometry data, (4) antenna design, testing, and 
analysis; and (5) digital signal processing. To enable real world scientific research in the areas listed above, AFRL is coordinating the installation of a unique W/V-band terrestrial link experiment.  Students interested will
assist in the day-to-day operations of this experiment to include laboratory testing, data collection and analysis, and site visits for visual inspection and routine maintenance to ensure proper equipment operation. Specific projects would be tailored to the student's interests and skills, but would require a basic understanding of electrical engineering, particularly radio frequency signal propagation, and interest in space communications.

Spacecraft Attitude Determination &amp; Control Testbed
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dylan Penn, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Spherical air bearing testbeds are used to emulate the zero-torque space environment.  These testbeds allow for three-degree-of-freedom motion of the test article.  The AFRL has the world’s largest spherical air bearing testbed, which is used to simulate a spacecraft complete with a full attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS), electrical power subsystem (EPS), and other spacecraft subsystems and components.  The testbed is used to research emergent effects of combined hardware and software systems.  Summer Scholars can work on a variety of projects ranging from hardware integration to software simulation.  Projects will be assigned based on student skillset.  A partial list of topics follows; if students want to discuss more topics in further detail, they should contact the project mentor. Partial topic list: control moment gyros (CMGs), reaction wheels, orbit disturbance modeling (rotational and translational), reaction control thrusters, hardware integration and test, orbit guidance, GUI development, and computer vision.

Spacecraft Attitude Determination & Control Testbed
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dylan Penn, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Spherical air bearing testbeds are used to emulate the zero-torque space environment.  These testbeds allow for three-degree-of-freedom motion of the test article.  The AFRL has the world’s largest spherical air bearing testbed, which is used to simulate a spacecraft complete with a full attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS), electrical power subsystem (EPS), and other spacecraft subsystems and components.  The testbed is used to research emergent effects of combined hardware and software systems.  Summer Scholars can work on a variety of projects ranging from hardware integration to software simulation.  Projects will be assigned based on student skillset.  A partial list of topics follows; if students want to discuss more topics in further detail, they should contact the project mentor. Partial topic list: control moment gyros (CMGs), reaction wheels, orbit disturbance modeling (rotational and translational), reaction control thrusters, hardware integration and test, orbit guidance, GUI development, and computer vision.

Spacecraft Attitude Determination & Control Testbed
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dylan Penn, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Spherical air bearing testbeds are used to emulate the zero-torque space environment.  These testbeds allow for three-degree-of-freedom motion of the test article.  The AFRL has the world’s largest spherical air bearing testbed, which is used to simulate a spacecraft complete with a full attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS), electrical power subsystem (EPS), and other spacecraft subsystems and components.  The testbed is used to research emergent effects of combined hardware and software systems.  Summer Scholars can work on a variety of projects ranging from hardware integration to software simulation.  Projects will be assigned based on student skillset.  A partial list of topics follows; if students want to discuss more topics in further detail, they should contact the project mentor. Partial topic list: control moment gyros (CMGs), reaction wheels, orbit disturbance modeling (rotational and translational), reaction control thrusters, hardware integration and test, orbit guidance, GUI development, and computer vision.

Spacecraft Attitude Mode Estimation Using Multiple Model Methods
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dylan Penn, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Spacecraft attitude can be described by both continuous states (quaternions, Euler angles) and discrete state (Sun-pointing, uncontrolled tumbling).  These continuous and discrete states are linked by mode logic.  Multiple model techniques work by comparing measured data to a set of models and matching the gathered data to the most likely model.  Using multiple model estimation, we can estimate not just the attitude of a spacecraft, but also the attitude mode.  This research will investigate the feasibility of estimating attitude mode using multiple model techniques.  The work will consist of coding existing techniques in MATLAB and applying said techniques to different scenarios.  Looking for upper-level undergraduate or graduate students.

Spacecraft Attitude Mode Estimation Using Multiple Model Methods
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dylan Penn, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
Spacecraft attitude can be described by both continuous states (quaternions, Euler angles) and discrete state (Sun-pointing, uncontrolled tumbling).  These continuous and discrete states are linked by mode logic.  Multiple model techniques work by comparing measured data to a set of models and matching the gathered data to the most likely model.  Using multiple model estimation, we can estimate not just the attitude of a spacecraft, but also the attitude mode.  This research will investigate the feasibility of estimating attitude mode using multiple model techniques.  The work will consist of coding existing techniques in MATLAB and applying said techniques to different scenarios.  Looking for upper-level undergraduate or graduate students.

Spacecraft Avionics Network Modeling and Simulation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Students will work with existing spacecraft or network modeling and simulation tools to develop avionics component models and develop and simulate spacecraft avionics architectures to test a variety of characteristics. Several existing commercial, open-source, and Government-developed tools will be provided on a test system as well as data about spacecraft components to for modeling.

Spacecraft Avionics Network Modeling and Simulation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Students will work with existing spacecraft or network modeling and simulation tools to develop avionics component models and develop and simulate spacecraft avionics architectures to test a variety of characteristics. Several existing commercial, open-source, and Government-developed tools will be provided on a test system as well as data about spacecraft components to for modeling.

Spacecraft Charging Instrumentation, Measurement and Simulation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dale Curtis Ferguson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
At AFRL Kirtland, there are vacuum-plasma chambers to test for surface charging of components and materials, radiation chambers to test for deep-dielectric charging, and spacecraft surface charging simulation software.  We desire applicants who wish to work on instrumentation and measurements with the chambers and/or simulation of surface charging with the Nascap-2K software.  Theory and experiment are both essential to studies of spacecraft charging.

Spacecraft Charging Instrumentation, Measurement and Simulation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Dale Curtis Ferguson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
At AFRL Kirtland, there are vacuum-plasma chambers to test for surface charging of components and materials, radiation chambers to test for deep-dielectric charging, and spacecraft surface charging simulation software.  We desire applicants who wish to work on instrumentation and measurements with the chambers and/or simulation of surface charging with the Nascap-2K software.  Theory and experiment are both essential to studies of spacecraft charging.

Spacecraft Dynamics Applied to Electromagnetic Transmitter Localization and Anti-Jamming
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This research entails the use of space-based receivers both to estimate the location of electromagnetic transmitters and to null any jamming/interference signal from the transmitters.  The transmitters themselves could be land-, sea-, air-, or space-based.  The location algorithms to be developed will be statistical in nature (typically either batch least-squares methods or sequential/filtering techniques).  Typical available measurement types include time difference of arrival (TDOA), frequency difference on arrival (FDOA), and frequency ratio on arrival (FROA).  This area also involves an understanding of spacecraft dynamics, in order to optimize orbit design for multiple-satellite clusters over one or more transmitters.  Similarly, the anti-jamming task involves spacecraft dynamics, in that the signal-nulling capability depends on the geometric (i.e. orbital) spacing of the antennas.  It should be noted that this research emphasizes the spacecraft dynamics and estimation aspects of these tasks, rather than the signal processing and/or antenna design aspects (although a fundamental understanding of those aspects is beneficial).

Spacecraft Dynamics Applied to Electromagnetic Transmitter Localization and Anti-Jamming
Summer 2017
Mentor: Alan Lovell, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This research entails the use of space-based receivers both to estimate the location of electromagnetic transmitters and to null any jamming/interference signal from the transmitters. The transmitters themselves could be land-, sea-, air-, or space-based. The location algorithms to be developed will be statistical in nature (typically either batch least-squares methods or sequential/filtering techniques). Typical available measurement types include time difference of arrival (TDOA), frequency difference on arrival (FDOA), and frequency ratio on arrival (FROA). This area also involves an understanding of spacecraft dynamics, in order to optimize orbit design for multiple-satellite clusters over one or more transmitters. Similarly, the anti-jamming task involves spacecraft dynamics, in that the signal-nulling capability depends on the geometric (i.e. orbital) spacing of the antennas. It should be noted that this research emphasizes the spacecraft dynamics and estimation aspects of these tasks, rather than the signal processing and/or antenna design aspects (although a fundamental understanding of those aspects is beneficial).

Spacecraft Relative Motion Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Stephen Phillips, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The ability to perform relative orbit maneuvers is of paramount importance to the Air Force.  Such maneuvers require precise control of a spacecraft motion.  Testing these algorithms for feasibility on a real system requires considerable funding for software integration, platform launch, etc.  This topic seeks to demonstrate these maneuvers on a low cost, in-house, relative motion modeling test bed.  The algorithms will be demonstrated using a quadcopter and a ground based omnidirectional mobile robot. With the use of several vision based tracking systems for determining attitude and position, the system will be implemented to allow for guidance control algorithm testing.

Spacecraft Thermal Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Hans-Peter Dumm, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Traditional spacecraft thermal design is a very detailed process that results in a highly optimized design that cannot be easily adapted to other orbits or spacecraft. As a result, thermal design tends to be a costly and time-consuming process. These shortcomings can be mitigated through the incorporation of robust thermal control, in which high conductivity materials are used in conjunction with heat transfer modulating devices and efficient insulation to create a thermal control system that can handle a wide range of component locations and heat loads. Student(s) chosen for this topic will used high-fidelity Thermal Desktop models, as well as reduced order models, to better quantify and map the abilities of robust thermal architectures to deal with off nominal conditions and/or changing orbits. Finite element/finite difference modeling experience is desired, but not strictly required.

Spacecraft Thermal Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Hans-Peter Dumm, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Traditional spacecraft thermal design is a very detailed process that results in a highly optimized design that cannot be easily adapted to other orbits or spacecraft. As a result, thermal design tends to be a costly and time-consuming process. These shortcomings can be mitigated through the incorporation of robust thermal control, in which high conductivity materials are used in conjunction with heat transfer modulating devices and efficient insulation to create a thermal control system that can handle a wide range of component locations and heat loads. Student(s) chosen for this topic will used high-fidelity Thermal Desktop models, as well as reduced order models, to better quantify and map the abilities of robust thermal architectures to deal with off nominal conditions and/or changing orbits. Finite element/finite difference modeling experience is desired, but not strictly required.

Spacecraft Thermal Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Hans-Peter Dumm, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Traditional spacecraft thermal design is a very detailed process that results in a highly optimized design that cannot be easily adapted to other orbits or spacecraft. As a result, thermal design tends to be a costly and time-consuming process. These shortcomings can be mitigated through the incorporation of robust thermal control, in which high conductivity materials are used in conjunction with heat transfer modulating devices and efficient insulation to create a thermal control system that can handle a wide range of component locations and heat loads. Student(s) chosen for this topic will used high-fidelity Thermal Desktop models, as well as reduced order models, to better quantify and map the abilities of robust thermal architectures to deal with off nominal conditions and/or changing orbits. Finite element/finite difference modeling experience is desired, but not strictly required.

Spacecraft Thermal System Design and Analysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Sally Smith, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Traditional satellite thermal design is a very detailed process that results in a highly optimized design for a particular satellite, but cannot be easily adapted to other spacecraft.  As a result, thermal design tends to be a costly and time-consuming process.  These shortcomings can be mitigated through the incorporation of robust thermal control, in which high conductivity materials are used in conjunction with heat transfer modulating devices and efficient insulation to create a thermal control system that can handle a wide range of component locations and heat loads. Based on the abilities of the student(s) selected for this topic, the student(s) will be responsible for: thermal vacuum testing of a range of thermal interface materials; thermal vacuum testing of high-conductivity materials; spacecraft thermal modeling. In addition to laboratory prototypes, the student(s) may receive the opportunity to work on flight hardware.

Spacecraft Thermal System Design and Analysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Sally Smith, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Traditional satellite thermal design is a very detailed process that results in a highly optimized design for a particular satellite, but cannot be easily adapted to other spacecraft.  As a result, thermal design tends to be a costly and time-consuming process.  These shortcomings can be mitigated through the incorporation of robust thermal control, in which high conductivity materials are used in conjunction with heat transfer modulating devices and efficient insulation to create a thermal control system that can handle a wide range of component locations and heat loads. Based on the abilities of the student(s) selected for this topic, the student(s) will be responsible for: thermal vacuum testing of a range of thermal interface materials; thermal vacuum testing of high-conductivity materials; spacecraft thermal modeling. In addition to laboratory prototypes, the student(s) may receive the opportunity to work on flight hardware.

Spacecraft Thermal System Design and Analysis
Summer 2017
Mentor: Sally Smith, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Traditional satellite thermal design is a very detailed process that results in a highly optimized design for a particular satellite, but cannot be easily adapted to other spacecraft.  As a result, thermal design tends to be a costly and time-consuming process.  These shortcomings can be mitigated through the incorporation of robust thermal control, in which high conductivity materials are used in conjunction with heat transfer modulating devices and efficient insulation to create a thermal control system that can handle a wide range of component locations and heat loads. Based on the abilities of the student(s) selected for this topic, the student(s) will be responsible for: thermal vacuum testing of a range of thermal interface materials; thermal vacuum testing of high-conductivity materials; spacecraft thermal modeling. In addition to laboratory prototypes, the student(s) may receive the opportunity to work on flight hardware.

Space Detector Materials Investigation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christian Paul Morath, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The space scholar will experimentally investigate unique semiconductor materials designed for space-based infrared detectors using variable field Hall measurements.  The measurements will ideally allow us to examine whether bandstructure engineering changes can be exploited to improve mobility and thus detector performance.  Variable field Hall measurements are necessary to account for the mixed- conduction nature of the materials.

Space Sensor Materials Investigation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christian Paul Morath, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The Phillips Scholar will assist with experimentally investigating unique semiconductor materials designed for space-based infrared detectors using variable field Hall measurements. The measurements will ideally allow us to examine whether bandstructure engineering changes can be exploited to improve mobility and thus detector performance. Variable field Hall measurements are necessary to account for the mixed- conduction nature of the materials.

Space Situational Awareness Large-Scale Simulation
Summer 2017
Mentor: Larry E Parten, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Space Situational Awareness Integrated Systems Model (SSA-ISM) has been developed within AFRL/RV to evaluate future sensing technologies within global architectures.  It is designed to accommodate a range of Electro-Optical sensors, Radars, Space-based sensors, Weather effects, Communications, and tasking & processing algorithms.  A message-passing architecture is used to ensure that individual elements are loosely coupled and modular, meaning that small-scale development efforts can be rolled up into the overall architecture.
We are seeking Space Scholars to contribute to this model by implementing new modules or improving upon existing features.  Scholars would initially work with the Government and support contractor team to identify simulation capabilities that could be improved upon substantially, with tailoring for an individual skillset, interest areas, and timeframe.  The Scholar would then proceed through research, coding, integration, and testing phases.  The resulting modules will be integrated into the  SSA-ISM framework to enable comprehensive studies that will shape the future of space capabilities for years to come.

Space weather effects and modeling for rf apertures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Derek Thomas Doyle, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Recent research has shown that space weather can have complex interactions on Rf materials of high order complexity. A student is desired who is working in this area to perform modeling and experimental verification for complex rf antenna assemblies. Additional preference is given to students able to design and construct antenna assemblies

Space Weather Modeling
Summer 2017
Mentor: Carl Henney, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Modeling the global solar magnetic field is critical for forecasting space weather events. Individuals interested in working with the input data used to drive solar wind models are encourged to apply for this oppertunity. The project involves working with a variety of ground and space based solar disk observations, as well as in-situ data from multiple spacecraft.

Squeezed light generation using 4-wave mixing.
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mayer Landau, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Applicant will assist in building an optical setup to generate both 4-wave optical mixing and squeezed light (i.e. light whose noise in phase space is squeezed either in phase or amplitude with respect to a thermal source).

Squeezed light through 4-wave mixing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mayer Landau, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Applicant will assist in building an optical setup to generate both 4-wave optical mixing and squeezed light (i.e. light whose noise in phase space is squeezed either in phase or amplitude with respect to a thermal source).

Squeezed light through 4-wave mixing
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mayer Landau, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
Applicant will assist in building an optical setup to generate both 4-wave optical mixing and squeezed light (i.e. light whose noise in phase space is squeezed either in phase or amplitude with respect to a thermal source).

STEM Outreach Coordination: I LOVE Science
Summer 2017
Mentor: Angela Spence Diggs, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Eglin AFB has a robust partnership providing professional STEM volunteers for classroom outreach. I LOVE Science is a major outreach program targeting elementary (3rd-5th grade) students with a monthly science lesson. Each lesson includes a presenter outline and student datasheets and is scoped to fit within one hour of classroom time. Student tasks include: (1) familiarization and standardization of current I LOVE Science materials, (2) update of external website with I LOVE Science materials, (3) support of summer STEM workshops, camps, and training, and, if time permits, (4) development of new I LOVE Science lessons in alignment with FL state math and science standards.

Structural Health Monitoring for Thermal Characterization of Space Structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Derek Thomas Doyle, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
To support responsive schedules and reduces Assembly, Integration&Testing (AI&T) costs, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been adopted as a potential enabler of real time characterization of structural anomallies both pre- and post-launch. Of particular interest for this topic is investigating how the SHM analysis of structural interfaces can be correlated with thermal conductance across those interfaces. This topic is a continuation of a 2 year effort looking into this potential capability and has shown very fruitful results as of now.

Structural Health Monitoring for Thermal Characterization of Space Structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Derek Thomas Doyle, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
To support responsive schedules and reduces Assembly, Integration&amp;Testing (AI&amp;T) costs, Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) has been adopted as a potential enabler of real time characterization of structural anomallies both pre- and post-launch. Of particular interest for this topic is investigating how the SHM analysis of structural interfaces can be correlated with thermal conductance across those interfaces. This topic is a continuation of a 2 year effort looking into this potential capability and has shown very fruitful results as of now.

Study of ionospheric electrodynamics based on satellite measurements
Summer 2017
Mentor: Chaosong Huang, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
This project is to study equatorial ionospheric disturbances that can lead to errors in communications and malfunctions of GPS systems. The primary duty of the summer scholars is to process and analyze data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, to examine the characteristics of equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, and identify how the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances varies with local time, longitude, geomagnetic activity, and solar activity. Good computer skills and a background in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics are desirable.

Study of ionospheric electrodynamics based on satellite measurements
Summer 2017
Mentor: Chaosong Huang, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
This project is to study equatorial ionospheric disturbances that can lead to errors in communications and malfunctions of GPS systems. The primary duty of the summer scholars is to process and analyze data obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites, to examine the characteristics of equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, and identify how the occurrence of ionospheric disturbances varies with local time, longitude, geomagnetic activity, and solar activity. Good computer skills and a background in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics are desirable.

Study of lunar mini-magnetospheres and lunar magnetic anomalies
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael Nayak, Directed Energy
Location: AMOS
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The Earth's magnetosphere, and its interactions with the solar wind, are of extreme interest to the military. However, interactions of the magnetized solar wind with the magnetic field of the Earth can complicate analysis. The Moon has no global magnetic field, but several isolated regions show magnetism, embedded in the Moon's crust. These "lunar magnetic anomalies" can present an excellent place to understand the first-order physics of magnetospheric interaction with the solar wind. 

This project aims to study several well-known lunar magnetic anomalies and contrast their behavior during local night (no solar wind activity) and day (fluctuating solar wind activity). It is possible that interactions between crustal magnetism and the solar wind set up local "mini-magnetospheres"; if true, these would be the smallest magnetospheres in the solar system. These would also be prime locations for future human habitation on the Moon due to reduced solar radiation, similar to the magnetospheric protection offered by the Earth's magnetic field. 

The student will analyze data from lunar spacecraft, using provided MATLAB toolboxes, to study mini-magnetospheric interactions with the solar wind. However, this topic is very rich in geophysical implications: some related subtopics that may be examined include "lunar swirls", anomalies in lunar mare regions and the impact of magnetic layering on the uncertainties in our analysis.  

Initial research in this area: 
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LPI....46.1926N
An application to spacecraft: 
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LPI....46.3000G

Prospective applicants are encouraged to contact Dr. Michael Nayak with any questions (michael.nayak.1@us.af.mil), even prior to applying.

Test and Simulation of Collaborative Weapon Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Angela Spence Diggs, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
5th and 6th generation fighters require smaller weapon systems for internal bay carriage, but must still deliver damage/defeat over a large area. The air blast from multiple smaller weapons may provide an opportunity to replace a single large weapon with multiple smaller weapons. One concept for achieving this is collaborative air blast, in which interacting blast waves from the detonation of multiple charges are used to focus shockwaves and enhance damage on target while reducing collateral damage. The Scholar will become familiar with the literature on interacting shock waves, run blast simulations on high performance computing (HPC) systems using state-of-the-art reacting flow codes, and assist in test planning and execution for subscale collaborative air blast experiments.

Test development for characterization of rad-hard IR detector structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Geoffrey Drake Jenkins, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
The need has arisen for the development and continual improvement of a minority carrier recombination lifetime measurement test system that is portable enough to haul to radiation sources while maintaining repeatable results. The measurement technique will employ Time-Resolved-Photoluminescence (TRPL) and/or microwave photoconductive decay using a pulsed laser while samples are to be maintained at space temperatures via liquid nitrogen. These measurements will be fed back to the space detector community in effort to accelerate the maturity of new, promising space detector technologies. Tasks may include: -Literature research to find new potential best practices, holes in physical understanding of radiation effects on semiconductors, determining what experiments need to be performed, etc -Mechanical design of custom mounts, apertures, etc -Hardware procurement recommendations -Imroving ease of portability -Test bed improvement/optimization -Software programming in LabVIEW and/or Matlab for hardware integration and automation -Data analysis (e.g. curve fitting), noting trends in carrier lifetime vs radiation exposure

Test development for characterization of rad-hard IR detector structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Geoffrey Drake Jenkins, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The need has arisen for the development and continual improvement of a minority carrier recombination lifetime measurement test system that is portable enough to haul to radiation sources while maintaining repeatable results. The measurement technique will employ Time-Resolved-Photoluminescence (TRPL) or microwave photoconductive decay using a pulsed laser while samples are to be maintained at space temperatures via liquid nitrogen. These measurements will be fed back to the space detector community in effort to accelerate the maturity of new, promising space detector technologies. Tasks may include: -Literature research to find new potential 'best practices', holes in physical understanding of radiation effects on semiconductors, determining what experiments need to be performed, etc -Mechanical design of custom mounts, apertures, etc -Hardware procurement recommendations -Imroving ease of portability -Test bed improvement/optimization -Software programming in LabVIEW and/or Matlab for hardware integration and automation -Data analysis (e.g. curve fitting), noting trends in carrier lifetime vs radiation exposure

Test development for characterization of rad-hard IR detector structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Geoffrey Drake Jenkins, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The need has arisen for the development and continual improvement of a minority carrier recombination lifetime measurement test system that is portable enough to haul to radiation sources while maintaining repeatable results. The measurement technique will employ Time-Resolved-Photoluminescence (TRPL) or microwave photoconductive decay using a pulsed laser while samples are to be maintained at space temperatures via liquid nitrogen. These measurements will be fed back to the space detector community in effort to accelerate the maturity of new, promising space detector technologies. Tasks may include: -Literature research to find new potential 'best practices', holes in physical understanding of radiation effects on semiconductors, determining what experiments need to be performed, etc -Mechanical design of custom mounts, apertures, etc -Hardware procurement recommendations -Imroving ease of portability -Test bed improvement/optimization -Software programming in LabVIEW and/or Matlab for hardware integration and automation -Data analysis (e.g. curve fitting), noting trends in carrier lifetime vs radiation exposure

Testing and Characterization of Software Tools for Space Situational Awareness
Summer 2017
Mentor: Julian McCafferty, Directed Energy
Location: AMOS
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
AFRL has developed a wide collection of software tools to enhance key aspects of satellite orbit prediction, characterization, and track correlation for Space Situational Awareness (SSA). Some of these tools are currently being synergized and integrated into next-generation AFRL programs to realize future critical capabilities. The graduation from the simulation environment to real world applications requires software adaptation to new and more clearly defined scenarios. This evolution often leads to novel and unconventional applications of well-established physical and mathematical models resulting in software tools that exhibit entirely new performance characteristics. This project seeks to characterize and improve upon the performance of existing AFRL developed SSA software tools exercising unique and modified physical and mathematical models for current and future astrodynamics challenges.

Testing an Ensemble of Advanced Clocks
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Clock technology is crucial in many applications, both for timing and as a component of navigation systems. The best atomic clocks are expensive, cumbersome, highly sensitive to environmental conditions, and subject to performance limitations imposed by physics. One way to improve clock performance is to combine the outputs of multiple clocks into an “ensemble” or “composite clock”. The resulting output behaves as a virtual clock that has the potential to outperform each of the individual clocks.
Students will work in the lab to collect data from a variety of different advanced clocks, combine the data into an ensemble, and assess its performance. In addition to setting up instrumentation, collecting and logging data, and analyzing performance, students may have the opportunity to design experiments to study ensemble performance in challenging environments.

Testing an Ensemble of Advanced Clocks
Summer 2017
Mentor: Joanna Hinks, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Clock technology is crucial in many applications, both for timing and as a component of navigation systems. The best atomic clocks are expensive, cumbersome, highly sensitive to environmental conditions, and subject to performance limitations imposed by physics. One way to improve clock performance is to combine the outputs of multiple clocks into an “ensemble” or “composite clock”. The resulting output behaves as a virtual clock that has the potential to outperform each of the individual clocks.
Students will work in the lab to collect data from a variety of different advanced clocks, combine the data into an ensemble, and assess its performance. In addition to setting up instrumentation, collecting and logging data, and analyzing performance, students may have the opportunity to design experiments to study ensemble performance in challenging environments.

Testing Foldable Composites for Space Structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael Edwin Peterson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
In the initial design phases of composite based deployable space structures, it is important to confidently predict structural performance parameters (stiffness, failure strain, natural frequencies, etc.) so engineers can conceive efficient, robust designs tailored for reliable on-orbit operations. With this in mind, reliable material characterization data is vital. Traditional methods to approximate composite mechanical properties (micromechanics/classical lamination theory) are not adequate for this new class of thin laminates loaded in flexure.  AFRL has invented new testing and data processing approaches to precisely characterize these laminates.  The student’s primary objective is to perform a mechanical characterization testing on high strain composites using AFRL-invented test fixtures and practices along with MTS tensile test machines and microscopes.  Familiarity with tensile test machines and a general mechanical intuition is highly desired in the applicants.

Testing Foldable Composites for Space Structures
Summer 2017
Mentor: Michael Edwin Peterson, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
In the initial design phases of composite based deployable space structures, it is important to confidently predict structural performance parameters (stiffness, failure strain, natural frequencies, etc.) so engineers can conceive efficient, robust designs tailored for reliable on-orbit operations. With this in mind, reliable material characterization data is vital. Traditional methods to approximate composite mechanical properties (micromechanics/classical lamination theory) are not adequate for this new class of thin laminates loaded in flexure.  AFRL has invented new testing and data processing approaches to precisely characterize these laminates.  The student’s primary objective is to perform a mechanical characterization testing on high strain composites using AFRL-invented test fixtures and practices along with MTS tensile test machines and microscopes.  Familiarity with tensile test machines and a general mechanical intuition is highly desired in the applicants.

Thermal Effects on Crystal Oscillators
Summer 2017
Mentor: Thomas Fraser, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The accuracy and stability of crystal oscillator frequencies over time is critical to the successful operation of spacecraft which rely on precise timekeeping to maintain system synchronization. It is known that a change in the oscillator temperature will cause a change in the resulting frequency; however, this effect is not fully understood as it relates to the dynamic spacecraft thermal environment. The objective of this topic is to investigate oscillator frequencies' response to transient heat loads within a satellite. The experimental setup includes applying thermal loads to frequency sources using thermoelectric modules and measuring frequency shifts with a custom receiver. This project also includes a thermal modeling component using Thermal Desktop modeling software. The results of this study will be important for future ground and on-orbit experiments to quantify frequency drifts in complex satellite designs.

Trajectory Design for Constrained Spacecraft Translational/Rotational Motion
Summer 2017
Mentor: Josue David Munoz, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Optimal control has been the default approach for trajectory design of constrained motion.  Different approaches exist to solving optimal control problems, all of which have their pros and cons.  One goal of this topic is to explore the different methods available for trajectory design, whether optimal or suboptimal.  A subset of these methods will be chosen to explore further.  A second goal is to formulate various cost and constraint representations, for given objectives of the trajectory, and to obtain solutions using the methods explored.  Lastly, formulation of new or hybrid methods will be explored based on the results obtained.

Transient Diffusional Creep in Structural Metals
Summer 2017
Mentor: Lynn James Neergaard, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
For automated structural design at elevated temperatures, it is necessary to have a usable constitutive equation for the materials to be used.  For stresses below the room temperature yield stress and at high temperatures, the dominant deformation mechanism is mass diffusion (see http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/defmech/ ).  Steady-state creep rate as a function of temperature and stress has been well described for a long time.  How the strain rate ramps up to the steady state value, and how strain rate can be related to recent stress and temperature history is a subject of more recent interest (msp.org/jomms/2009/4-1/jomms-v4-n1-p06-s.pdf, engineering.wayne.edu/berdichevsky_files/1997a.pdf and others).  This summer project will propose a constitutive model for transient diffusional creep in structural metals (aluminums, titaniums, stainless steels, and superalloys), preferably based on physical constants and solvable using numerical methods.

Trusted Platform Module for Embedded Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Students will investigate the application of a commercial trusted platform module (TPM) for hardening an embedded computing system. A single-board computer running Linux and an existing set of embedded system software and including a TPM chip will be provided for development. Students will be responsible for developing software to interface with the TPM and integrating the TPM-enable capabilities into the existing embedded software.

Trusted Platform Module for Embedded Systems
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
Students will investigate the application of a commercial trusted platform module (TPM) for hardening an embedded computing system. A single-board computer running Linux and an existing set of embedded system software and including a TPM chip will be provided for development. Students will be responsible for developing software to interface with the TPM and integrating the TPM-enable capabilities into the existing embedded software.

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andreas Schmitt-Sody, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) group is seeking motivated young scientists and engineers to join the USPL team. The research in the group is focused on studying the basic physics of  nonlinear USPL propagation, filamentation, plasma generation and USPL matter interaction. These laser sources have the potential to be very important to both AF and DOD applications. The laboratory facilities at AFRL are state-of-the-art and are on the leading edge of femtosecond laser research.

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andreas Schmitt-Sody, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) group is seeking motivated young scientists and engineers to join the USPL team. The research in the group is focused on studying the basic physics of  nonlinear USPL propagation, filamentation, plasma generation and USPL matter interaction. These laser sources have the potential to be very important to both AF and DOD applications. The laboratory facilities at AFRL are state-of-the-art and are
on the leading edge of femtosecond laser research.

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jennifer Elle, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) group is seeking young scientists and engineers to join the USPL team. Topics under investigation include laser wakefield acceleration, filamentation, and laser-solid or laser-gas interactions.  Students will assist with the design and implementation of experimental hardware, build diagnostics, and perform data acquisition and analysis.

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jennifer Elle, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) group is seeking young scientists and engineers to join the USPL team. Topics under investigation include laser wakefield acceleration, filamentation, and laser-solid or laser-gas interactions.  Students will assist with the design and implementation of experimental hardware, build diagnostics, and perform data acquisition and analysis.

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jennifer Elle, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) group is seeking young scientists and engineers to join the USPL team. Topics under investigation include laser wakefield acceleration, filamentation, and laser-solid or laser-gas interactions.  Students will assist with the design and implementation of experimental hardware, build diagnostics, and perform data acquisition and analysis.

Ultrashort Pulse Laser Research
Summer 2017
Mentor: Andreas Schmitt-Sody, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The ultrashort pulse laser (USPL) group is seeking motivated young scientists and engineers to join the USPL team. The research in the group is focused on studying the basic physics of  nonlinear USPL propagation, filamentation, plasma generation and USPL matter interaction. These laser sources have the potential to be very important to both AF and DOD applications. The laboratory facilities at AFRL are state-of-the-art and are on the leading edge of femtosecond laser research.

Understanding the sources of variability in EUV solar spectral irradiance
Summer 2017
Mentor: Rachel Hock-Mysliwiec, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
This project focuses on understanding and modeling the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance, which is a measure of the radiative energy output of the Sun both as a function of wavelength and time. Irradiance contains no spatial information, which makes it a funny concept to talk about as we are able take beautiful images of the Sun. We care about solar irradiance because that is what the Earth's atmosphere "sees".  The atmosphere is not sensitive to where the photons are coming from the Sun; it just reacts to the presence of photons. Different wavelengths are absorbed (or reflected) at different layers in the atmosphere.  Longer wavelengths (visible/IR) heat the lower atmosphere while the short wavelengths (X-ray/EUV/FUV; <200 nm) heat the thermosphere and ionize the ionosphere.  Coupled with the variability of the Sun, we get long-term climate change (the visible and IR part of the solar spectrum varies over decades to centuries) in the lower atmosphere and space weather (X-ray/EUV/FUV varies on minutes to days) in the upper atmosphere.

We are developing both empirical and physics-based models of the EUV solar spectral irradiance over a range of timescales from months to days to minutes.  Summer scholars will have the opportunity to work with solar spectra and images and learn the basics of astrophysical data analysis techniques and programming in the Interactive Data Language (IDL). They can expect that their work will contribute to the development of operational space weather models.

Understanding the sources of variability in EUV solar spectral irradiance
Summer 2017
Mentor: Rachel Hock-Mysliwiec, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project focuses on understanding and modeling the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar spectral irradiance, which is a measure of the radiative energy output of the Sun both as a function of wavelength and time. Irradiance contains no spatial information, which makes it a funny concept to talk about as we are able take beautiful images of the Sun. We care about solar irradiance because that is what the Earth's atmosphere "sees".  The atmosphere is not sensitive to where the photons are coming from the Sun; it just reacts to the presence of photons. Different wavelengths are absorbed (or reflected) at different layers in the atmosphere.  Longer wavelengths (visible/IR) heat the lower atmosphere while the short wavelengths (X-ray/EUV/FUV; <200 nm) heat the thermosphere and ionize the ionosphere.  Coupled with the variability of the Sun, we get long-term climate change (the visible and IR part of the solar spectrum varies over decades to centuries) in the lower atmosphere and space weather (X-ray/EUV/FUV varies on minutes to days) in the upper atmosphere.

We are developing both empirical and physics-based models of the EUV solar spectral irradiance over a range of timescales from months to days to minutes.  Summer scholars will have the opportunity to work with solar spectra and images and learn the basics of astrophysical data analysis techniques and programming in the Interactive Data Language (IDL). They can expect that their work will contribute to the development of operational space weather models.

University Nanosatellite Program (Part 1)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Kate Yoshino, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) was founded in 1999 to foster satellite development expertise in young engineers and to generate new small satellite technologies on small satellite platforms. UNP works with various universities across the country to guide students in the end-to-end design and fabrication of small satellites. UNP typically selects 1 to 5 students to participate in the AFRL Scholars program to assist in this objective. Selected candidates will be required to assist in the analysis, test or documentation for the current nanosatellites preparing for launch. Often times this involves hands-on activities with the satellite. The candidates will also participate in program activities including spacecraft testing, troubleshooting, requirements verification, and providing technical expertise to other university participants within the program. Scholars may have the opportunity to accompany the UNP Office to official small satellite events during the summer. Scholars will have the opportunity to gain and swap systems engineering experience and expertise with other students and professionals in various small satellite lab programs across the US.

University Nanosatellite Program (Part 1)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Kate Yoshino, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) was founded in 1999 to foster satellite development expertise in young engineers and to generate new small satellite technologies on small satellite platforms. UNP works with various universities across the country to guide students in the end-to-end design and fabrication of small satellites. UNP typically selects 1 to 5 students to participate in the AFRL Scholars program to assist in this objective. Selected candidates will be required to assist in the analysis, test or documentation for the current nanosatellites preparing for launch. Often times this involves hands-on activities with the satellite. The candidates will also participate in program activities including spacecraft testing, troubleshooting, requirements verification, and providing technical expertise to other university participants within the program. Scholars may have the opportunity to accompany the UNP Office to official small satellite events during the summer. Scholars will have the opportunity to gain and swap systems engineering experience and expertise with other students and professionals in various small satellite lab programs across the US.

University Nanosatellite Program (Part 1)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Kate Yoshino, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) was founded in 1999 to foster satellite development expertise in young engineers and to generate new small satellite technologies on small satellite platforms. UNP works with various universities across the country to guide students in the end-to-end design and fabrication of small satellites. UNP typically selects 1 to 5 students to participate in the AFRL Scholars program to assist in this objective. Selected candidates will be required to assist in the analysis, test or documentation for the current nanosatellites preparing for launch. Often times this involves hands-on activities with the satellite. The candidates will also participate in program activities including spacecraft testing, troubleshooting, requirements verification, and providing technical expertise to other university participants within the program. Scholars may have the opportunity to accompany the UNP Office to official small satellite events during the summer. Scholars will have the opportunity to gain and swap systems engineering experience and expertise with other students and professionals in various small satellite lab programs across the US.

University Nanosatellite Program (Part 2)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Shivani Patel, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
The University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) was founded in 1999 to foster satellite development expertise in young engineers and to generate new small satellite technologies on small satellite platforms. UNP works with various universities across the country to guide students in the end-to-end design and fabrication of small satellites. UNP typically selects 1 to 5 students to participate in the AFRL Scholars program to assist in this objective. Selected candidates will be required to assist in the analysis, test or documentation for the current nanosatellites preparing for launch. Often times this involves hands-on activities with the satellite. The candidates will also participate in program activities including spacecraft testing, troubleshooting, requirements verification, and providing technical expertise to other university participants within the program. Scholars may have the opportunity to accompany the UNP Office to official small satellite events during the summer. Scholars will have the opportunity to gain and swap systems engineering experience and expertise with other students and professionals in various small satellite lab programs across the US.

University Nanosatellite Program (Part 2)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Shivani Patel, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
The University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) was founded in 1999 to foster satellite development expertise in young engineers and to generate new small satellite technologies on small satellite platforms. UNP works with various universities across the country to guide students in the end-to-end design and fabrication of small satellites. UNP typically selects 1 to 5 students to participate in the AFRL Scholars program to assist in this objective. Selected candidates will be required to assist in the analysis, test or documentation for the current nanosatellites preparing for launch. Often times this involves hands-on activities with the satellite. The candidates will also participate in program activities including spacecraft testing, troubleshooting, requirements verification, and providing technical expertise to other university participants within the program. Scholars may have the opportunity to accompany the UNP Office to official small satellite events during the summer. Scholars will have the opportunity to gain and swap systems engineering experience and expertise with other students and professionals in various small satellite lab programs across the US.

University Nanosatellite Program (Part 2)
Summer 2017
Mentor: Shivani Patel, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: High School
The University Nanosatellite Program (UNP) was founded in 1999 to foster satellite development expertise in young engineers and to generate new small satellite technologies on small satellite platforms. UNP works with various universities across the country to guide students in the end-to-end design and fabrication of small satellites. UNP typically selects 1 to 5 students to participate in the AFRL Scholars program to assist in this objective. Selected candidates will be required to assist in the analysis, test or documentation for the current nanosatellites preparing for launch. Often times this involves hands-on activities with the satellite. The candidates will also participate in program activities including spacecraft testing, troubleshooting, requirements verification, and providing technical expertise to other university participants within the program. Scholars may have the opportunity to accompany the UNP Office to official small satellite events during the summer. Scholars will have the opportunity to gain and swap systems engineering experience and expertise with other students and professionals in various small satellite lab programs across the US.

Using RGBD and Shape Grammars for Target Recognition
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jamie Gantert, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Masters
AFRL has a strong interest in pursuing innovative solutions to efficiently perform automatic target recognition. This internship aims to provide students with an opportunity to conduct research and develop an application that leverages shape grammar concepts to perform target recognition. Shape grammars define objects based on their geometrical subcomponents which has been predominantly used in the gaming and film industries to develop algorithms that utilize these definitions to quickly generate virtual environments.  This project intends to build from this concept on generative models to develop shape grammars that define a set of targets and then use these definitions to provide guidance when conducting recognition on RGBD sensor data. This project will provide the individual with the opportunity to develop their programming and algorithm development skills as they explore this challenging approach towards target recognition.

Variable-field Hall measurements on III-V Type II superlattice
Summer 2017
Mentor: Christian Paul Morath, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
III-V based, type II superlattice (T2SL) materials offer a potential alternative to HgCdTe for next generation infrared detectors.  However, the material still suffers from minority carrier lifetime issues, which may stem from unintentional doping.   Here, variable-field Hall measurements will be used to ascertain the transport properties of T2SL material.  These measurements allow for multi-carrier fitting routines to be performed, which should ideally identify all the carrier types present and provide evidence towards their role, if any, in determining the lifetime.

Virtualization for Embedded System Software
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The student will investigate the application of virtualization techniques such as hypervisors, virtual machines, and/or containers to improve portability and maintainability of spacecraft software functions. This project will involve instantiating a commercially-available virtualization software system on an ARM-based single-board computer.

Virtualization for Embedded System Software
Summer 2017
Mentor: Robert W Vick, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters
The student will investigate the application of virtualization techniques such as hypervisors, virtual machines, and containers to improve portability and maintainability of spacecraft software functions. This project will involve instantiating a commercially-available virtualization software system on an ARM-based single-board computer.

Vision Enabled Passive Relative Motion for Spacecraft Proximity Operations
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jacob Wade Singleton, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
This project will focus on the development and evaluation of algorithms for monocular, and stereo vision solutions to track relative motion of a spacecraft.  In an extension to previous work, algorithm performance will be evaluated against lighting conditions, standoff distance, and fidelity of available a-priori knowledge.  Algorithms will also be verified through lab experiments tracking target robots and introducing closed loop control during simulated proximity operations.

Visual Display of 3D Weapon Effects Data
Summer 2017
Mentor: Eric Lewis Scarborough, Munitions
Location: Eglin
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
The Lethality, Vulnerability, and Survivability Branch is responsible for assessing weapon effects against buildings and vehicle targets. Branch personnel use a variety of computer simulations to carry out these assessments. The applicant will assist in developing software for visualizing simulation results either using 3D plotting programs (C++, Python) and/or 3D visualization hardware systems (Microsoft Hololens).

Wave Structures in the Bottomside Ionosphere
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jonah Colman, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Lower-level Undergraduate, Upper-level Undergraduate
Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are pervasive in the Bottomside ionosphere. These are typically understood as gravity waves and have a number of sources such as topology, neutral winds, the terminator, convective uplift, and explosions. They can be the limiting factor on understanding the propagation characteristics of RF electromagnetic radiation across the ionosphere or within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. We will simulate such structures based on experimental data and attempt to model their effects on HF systems.

Wave Structures in the Bottomside Ionosphere
Summer 2017
Mentor: Jonah Colman, Space Vehicles
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) are pervasive in the Bottomside ionosphere. These are typically understood as gravity waves and have a number of sources such as topology, neutral winds, the terminator, convective uplift, and explosions. They can be the limiting factor on understanding the propagation characteristics of RF electromagnetic radiation across the ionosphere or within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. We will simulate such structures based on experimental data and attempt to model their effects on HF systems.

Woofer-tweeter compensation using digital holographic detection and image sharpening
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mark F. Spencer, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Masters, Ph.D.
Using digital holographic detection, this research effort will demonstrate a fundamentally new approach to closed-loop adaptive optics.  In practice, digital holographic detection provides the ability to perform varying-resolution wavefront sensing and digital-image correction through an iterative algorithm known as image sharpening.  The image sharpening algorithm works by fitting basis functions to the phase function of the coherent image obtained using digital-holographic detection in order to maximize the sharpness of the image.  These basis functions can be the influence functions of the woofer-tweeter correction devices; thus, image sharpening allows for efficient higher-order correction at varying resolutions.  Moving forward, this research effort will address the spatial and temporal requirements needed for the integration of this robust solution into directed-energy systems.  To properly address these requirements, this research effort will leverage existing government-laboratory equipment to perform scaled-laboratory experiments.

Woofer-tweeter compensation using digital holographic detection and image sharpening
Summer 2017
Mentor: Mark F. Spencer, Directed Energy
Location: Kirtland
Academic Level: Upper-level Undergraduate
Using digital holographic detection, this research effort will demonstrate a fundamentally new approach to closed-loop adaptive optics.  In practice, digital holographic detection provides the ability to perform varying-resolution wavefront sensing and digital-image correction through an iterative algorithm known as image sharpening.  The image sharpening algorithm works by fitting basis functions to the phase function of the coherent image obtained using digital-holographic detection in order to maximize the sharpness of the image.  These basis functions can be the influence functions of the woofer-tweeter correction devices; thus, image sharpening allows for efficient higher-order correction at varying resolutions.  Moving forward, this research effort will address the spatial and temporal requirements needed for the integration of this robust solution into directed-energy systems.  To properly address these requirements, this research effort will leverage existing government-laboratory equipment to perform scaled-laboratory experiments.

WP2017 Project 10(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQTF WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 11(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 12(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 13(RX Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RXAP WPAFB mentor, Materials and Manufacturing
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 14(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 15(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHXB WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 16(RH Machine Shop)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHCP WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 17(RQ Machine Shop)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQVI WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 18(RQ Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQHV WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 19(RQ Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQHV WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 1(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHXB WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 20(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account SAM WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 21(RY Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYAT WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 22(RY Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYAT WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 23(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQE WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 24(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 25(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQTT WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 26(RQ Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQHV WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 27(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHDJ WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 28(RX Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RXCC WPAFB mentor, Materials and Manufacturing
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 29(RY Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYZT WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 2(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAC WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 30(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account SAM WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 31(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account SAM WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 32(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQE WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 33(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQTF WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 34(RY Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYAT WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 35(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 36(RY Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYMH WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 37(RX Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RXAP WPAFB mentor, Materials and Manufacturing
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 38(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 39(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQVC WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 3(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHXB WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 40(RQ Machine Shop)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQM WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 41(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 42(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 43(RY Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYDR WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 44(RQ Machine Shop)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQE WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 45(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQE WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 46(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQTF WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 47(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHXB WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 48(RY Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYDP WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 49(RX Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RXCM WPAFB mentor, Materials and Manufacturing
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 4(RY Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYDP WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 50(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 51(RY Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYMR WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 52(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 53(RY Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RYMR WPAFB mentor, Sensors
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 54(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 55(RX Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RXCM WPAFB mentor, Materials and Manufacturing
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 56(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account SAM WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 57(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHCI WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 58(RQ Machine Shop)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQE WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 59(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQTT WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 5(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 60(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQM WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 61(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHXB WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 62(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHAS WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 63(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHCP WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 6(RQ Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQQM WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 7(RQ Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RQVC WPAFB mentor, Aerospace Systems
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 8(RH Office)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHXM WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)

WP2017 Project 9(RH Analytical)
Summer 2017
Mentor: System Account RHDJ WPAFB mentor, Human Effectiveness
Location: WPAFB
Academic Level:
(record imported)